Lord Brahma was considered as the creator of universe. Lord Brahma is considered to be originated by Swayambhu and he is the First Manu. He had created six Manasaputras (Mind born of Brahma). They are considered equal to Prajapatis (progenitors of all beings in creation). The Manasaputras of Lord Brahma were Marichi (Second Manu), Angiras, Atri, Pulastya, Pulaha and Kratu. Some of the offspring born from Brahma's body parts are Dharma, Adharma, Krodha, Lobha, Bhrigu and others.Later through these offspring and manasaputras - Devas, Asuras, Planets, Gandarvas, Apsaras and others were born through their generations.
Kashyapa was born to Marichi. Kashyapa (Third Manu) is considered as the father of humanity since it was from him; the entire earthly creatures were born. Brihaspati was born to Angira. Brihaspati (Jupiter) later became the guru of gods. Shukra was born to Bhrigu. Shukra (Venus) later became the guru of asuras. Let us go through the generations of Kashyapa from Satya Yuga to Kali Yuga.
Daksha Prajapati (one of the Prajapati) was born out of the right thumb of Brahma, whereas Bhudevi was born out of the left thumb of Brahma. It is believed that the union of a man and a woman started from Daksha Prajapati and Bhudevi. Bhudevi produced thousand sons and fifty daughters. None of his sons married, they practiced Sankhya Yoga and attained Moksha. Daksha Prajapati married thirteen of his daughters to Rishi Kashyap, ten of his daughters to Dharma and the remaining twenty seven daughters, who are Nakshatras to Chandra.
Rishi Kashyap married Aditi, Diti, Kadru, Danu, Arishta, Surasa, Surabhi, Vinata, Tamra, Krodhavasa, Ida, Vishva and Muni. Kashyap, by his first wife Aditi had 12 sons including Indra and Vivaswan (Surya). The sons of Aditi are called as Adityas. Indra became the king of gods in heaven whereas Vivaswan (Fourth Manu) married Saranya, daughter of Lord Vishwakarma (one of the Prajapati). Saranya, a goddess of the clouds became the mother of Vaivasvata Manu (Fifth, Sixth and Seventh Manu) and the twins Yama and his sister Yami. Yama became the Lord of Death. All the dynasties on the earth descended from Manu's sons including Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaisyas and Shudras. Vaivasvata Manu had ten children and Ila Kanya was the only daughter and all the remaining children were sons. The Sixth Manu is Vaivasvata Manu's ten children. One of the sons of Vaivasvata Manu is Ikshvaku who established Ikshvaku Dynasty (Solar Dynasty or Suryavansha). Sri Rama (seventh avatar of Vishnu) is a descendent of Ikshvaku Dynasty.
Note: ILA Kanya became the mother of Pururava. Pururava established the lunar dynasty (Somavansha or Chandravansha). Pururava later had six sons by Urvashi. They are Ayus (father of Nahusha), Amavasu, Vishvayu, Shrutayu, Shatayu and Dridhayu. The throne of Pururavas was later inherited by many able descendants from the royal bloodline and they continued to rule for centuries. There list included great kings like Yayati (son of Nahusha), Puru and Yadu (sons of Yayati), Dushyanta, Bharata and later by Kuru kings. Descendants of Yadu are called as Yadavas and descendants of Puru are called as Pauravas. Dushyantha and his son Bharata were Puru's descendants. According to Rig Veda, Kuru was born after 25 generations of Puru dynasty and this Kuru established the Kuru dynasty. Shantanu is Kuru's descendant. Kauravas and Pandavas were born after 15 generations of Kuru dynasty. Sri Krishna (ninth avatar of Vishnu) was the descendant from Yadu and he lived in the same generation of Kauravas and Pandavas in which the great Kurushetra war happened.
Like his guru, Ved also became a teacher and he had several students. But he had never asked them for a test to prove their devotion, since he does not like his students to suffer for him. He is also serving as a priest to King Janamejaya and King Paushya. One among his brilliant students is Uttanka.
One day, Ved appointed Uttanka to take care of the house since he wants to leave his house for priestly duty. Uttanka obeyed what his master said and took the control of the house. Days passed and when he returned, he heard a lot of praise for Uttanka. Impressed with his decent behavior, he wished and given the permission to leave the hermitage and to built his carrier. Uttanka bowed to his guru and inquired what to give in return as Guru Dakshina. Ved first refused but due to Uttanka's persistence, he said to ask guru's wife. Uttanka then turned to guru's wife and asked the same. She smiled and said to bring a pair of earrings from the queen of King Paushya. There is a need for her to wear those earrings in the banquet conducted for Brahmins after four days. She also said that if he failed to perform this task, he would not be successful.
Uttanka set out for King Paushya's palace. On the way, a tall man sitting on a bull asked him to eat the bull's dung. Uttanka refused it but the man convinced him by saying that his Guru already ate this when he asked to eat. Hearing this, Uttanka ate it and on the way to palace he washed his mouth. Finally he reached the king's palace. He then introduced himself and requested the earrings of queen for giving gift as Guru Dakshina. The king sent him to queen's palace. Uttanka searched for queen in the palace, but he failed to find her. Then he went to king and complained that the queen is not there. The King replied that her queen is a pious woman and anybody who is indecent or unclean can't see her. Uttanka suddenly remember the incident happened on the way and he narrated it to the king. The king instructs him to dip in the holy water for three times and also to wash the mouth for two times. After performing the rituals, he went to queen and this time he saw the queen. The queen greeted him and presented the food and drink. Uttanka then tell his teacher's wife's demand to the queen. The queen gave the earrings to Uttanka with a warning that Takshaka wanted these earrings. So there is a chance for robbery.
Uttanka expressed his gratitude towards king and the queen for their kindness. He then started his return to Guru's hermitage. On the way, a snake started to follow him. The snake would sometimes appear and then disappear. Uttanka noticed it and he remembered queen's warning. After long walk, he felt thirsty. Then he placed the earrings in land to drink water. The serpent was waiting for that opportunity and it snatched it and disappeared. Uttanka recognizes the serpent that robed the earrings was none other than Takshaka, the king of serpents. Uttank summoned the Vajra (the weapon of Indra) and with its help he chased Takshak to the land of snakes. Terrified with the power of Uttanka, Takshaka returned the earrings. Uttanka then returned to the hermitage of his guru on time and presented it to Guru's wife. He then fell into the legs of Guru's wife and received her blessings. But he could not forgive Takshaka for his devious behavior.
Later he came to Hastinapur and pays a visit to King Janamejaya, who was just returned after the victorious invasion of Takshasila from the Nagas headed by Takshaka. Uttanka then informed the king that his father was killed by Takshaka. A sage called Kashyap can save his father from the poison. When the sage decided to visit the palace for treatment, Takshaka tricked him into going back. Uttanka then encouraged King Janamejaya to conduct a Yajna to burn the Takshaka and other sinner snakes into ashes.
During the reign of King Janamejaya, there lived a great scholar called Ayoda-Dhaumya. He had three main students. They were Aruni, Upmanyu, and Ved.
Here is a story about his first student, Aruni.
One day, the Guru called Aruni and said to repair the levees of the field, which is damaged and the water is rushing out from the field. Upon the Guru's wish, he went to the field and started his work. He tried his best to build a levee but he was not able to do it. Tired and exhausted, he then got an idea to block the water flow by himself laid down. He remained in this position the whole day. In the evening, when Ayoda-Dhaumya found that Aruni was not yet returned, he inquired about him to other students. But they also were not aware about him. They went to the field and called Aruni. Hearing the voice of his guru, Aruni stood and apologized for not paying his respects towards guru in the evening. He expressed his sadness for not repairing the levee. Also inquired about what should he pay in return for this and he is ready to serve him all the day. The Guru was pleased with the selfless service of his student. He blessed and had given a new name, Uddalaka which means one who gets up after breaking things. He had also given another name called Kalyan, since he lay in the place of levee though he can't make it and also not bothered about food or drink. He also blessed him that he should study all Vedas and Dharmashastras automatically without taking much effort. With these blessings from his guru, Aruni leaved the hermitage of Ayoda-Dhaumya and went happily to his native town.
Here is the story of Ayoda-Dhaumya's second student, Upmanyu.
One day, Ayoda-Dhaumya decided to test Upmanyu's devotion. He called him and gave a task to guide the cows and protects them all the day. Upmanyu accepted the task and took out the cows for grazing. After the work, the sage asked Upmanyu that he is looking very healthy and how he gets food. Upmanyu calmly replied that he get it by begging. On hearing this, the sage instructed Upmanyu to give all the alms to him. The next day Upmanyu did what his guru said and the sage took away all the food without giving anything to him. The sage continued this and after some days, he noticed that Upmanyu still looked very healthy without food. When he inquired about this, Upmanyu said that he is eating what he got from begging for second time. The sage then scolded Upmanyu that one should not beg for second time since it is the share of other people. The obedient student followed what his teacher said. Still the teacher can't find a change in student's health after some days. When inquired, Upmanyu said that he is now drinking some of the milk they give. The sage immediately restricted Upmanyu from taking milk from the cows. Upmanyu obeyed to this wish too.
The teacher again repeated the question about the reason of health. This time, the student replied that he drink foam that calves spurt out after they drink their mother's milk. The Guru lamented that by doing so he is hindering the calves' growth. Upmanyu listened and stopped drinking the foam from calves. The next day, when Upmanyu took the cows for grazing as usual, he felt very hungry. With out controlling the hunger, he ate the leaves of the Aak plant. Due to its poisonous juice, Upmanyu lost his eyesight. Blind and also with hunger, he wandered around the forest until he fell into a dry well. When Upamanyu did not return from forest in the evening, the sage was upset and he along with other students went for search. Upmanyu heard his Guru's voice and replied him that he was in the well. When the sage realized the fact that how he became blind and fell into well, the sage felt that, his test became so pitiless. As a solution to this, he asked Upamanyu to pray Ashwin Kumars (twins who are the Physicians of Gods). Upmanyu prayed and soon the Ashwini Kumars appeared and gave Upmanyu a sweet. But he refused it by saying that he would not eat anything without his teacher's permission. So impressed with the Upmanyu's devotion towards his teacher, the god blessed him and also restored his eyesight.
Ayodhdhaumya was pleased with Upamanyu's devotion towards him and said that he had passed the test conducted by him. He also blessed him that he should study all Vedas and Dharmashastras automatically without learning religious texts. With these blessings from his guru, Upmanyu leaved the hermitage and went happily to his native town.
Here is the story of Ayoda-Dhaumya's third student, Ved.
One day, Ayoda-Dhaumya called his third student, Ved and asked to stay in his house for few days. Ved obeyed the guru. Upon arrival to his house, guru gave a burden of work to him. Without any argument, he did all the work without any hesitation. Guru loaded him work after work, but without any complaint he performed his duties. Pleased with his Selfless altitude, Guru blessed him and set him free to move on with his life. Ved happily accepted his teacher send-off and returned to his native town. He then married a girl and later became a teacher.