1.The Marumakkatayam system of Kerala was first explained by Friar Jordan who visited Kollam in AD 1324.
2.The Portuguese were the first Europeans to reach Kerala by Ocean. It was under the leadership of Vasco Da Gama in 1498 May 20, first Portuguese troop reached Kapad near to Kozhikode.
3.The second expedition of the Portuguese to Kerala was led by Pedro Alvares Cabral. He reached Cochin in 1500. Vasco Da Gama visited Kerala for second time in 1502.
4.Francisco d’Almeida was the first Viceroy of the Portuguese in India. He reached Kerala in AD 1505. In order to attain supremacy in India, Portuguese built St Angelo Fort in Kannur.
5.The first fort built by Europeans in India is Fort Manual of Kochi. Portuguese built this fort and the construction of this fort was completed in December 1503.
6.Albuquerque (1509 - 1515) is the second Portuguese viceroy. During his period, the headquaters of Portuguese is shifted to Goa from Kochi. He promoted the mixed marriage between Portuguese and Indians.
7.Vasco Da Gama reached Kerala for third time in 1524. This time, he reached with the title of Portuguese Viceroy. He died at Kochi in December 24.
8.Kunjali Marakkars opposed the Portuguese. They led the wars against Portuguese.
9.Kunjali Marakkars were the traditional naval commanders of Zamorin.
10.Fourth and the last Kunjali was Muhammed Kunjali. He adopted the titles ‘‘King of the Moors’ and ‘Lord of the Indian Seas’.
11.In 1600, Kunjali IV was captured by the Zamorin and he was executed by the Portuguese at Goa.
12.The local name of Portuguese was ‘Parangikal’ and Dutch was ‘Lanthakar’.
13.The ‘‘Tuhafat-ul-Mujahideen’ of Sheik Zainuddin is the work that mentions Portuguese people’s wickedness in Kerala. It explains the imperialisation of Portuguese in kerala between the period, 1498 to 1583. The script was submitted to Bijapur Sultan Adil Shak.
14.Portuguese established scientific agricultural methods in Kerala. They imported good seed coconuts to kerala from aboard. They extended the coir trade to aboard. Cashew Nut, adakka---, Pappaya, Guava, Kaita chakka---, water melon etc was imported by Portuguese.
15.Portuguese spread the European weapons and war techniques in kerala. It was by the Portuguese, who developed the chief art form of kerala called ‘Chavittunadakam’.
16.It was due to malayalee’s relation with Portuguese, Malayalam language got the words Lelam, Mesthiri, Kushini, Chavi, Randhal, Jannal, Verantah, Vijagiri, Alamara, Konta, Kumbasaram, Vikari, Mesha, Kasera, Bench, Chaya, Factory, Muram, Patakam, Goudon.
17.The arabi-persian words that got to malayalam language due to relation with Arabs were Kathu, Hajer, Vakeel, Vakalath, Gumastan, Nakkal, Tehsildar, Taluk, Kasba, Mamool, Japti, Vasool, Keesha, Kacheri, Ushar, Bejar etc.
18.Dutch East India Company was formed in 1602. Admiral Steven Van Der Hagen was the first Dutch Admiral to reach Kerala (Calicut). He arrived Kozhikode at 1604 and entered into an alliance with the Zamorin of Calicut.
19.Portuguese built a palace in Mattancherry for Kochi king, Vira Kerala Varma in 1555. In 1663, Dutch reconstructed this palace. Afterthat it is known in the name of Dutch Palace.
20.Dutch People built a palace at Bolgatti Island of Kochi in 1744. Now it is known as Bolgatti Palace.
21.The Colachel war in 1741 is the incident that makes big fall for Dutch power. In the famous battle fought at Kulachal, the forces of Marthanda varma defeated the Dutch and captured the dutch army leader, D’Lannoy, who later became the ‘Valiyakappithan’ of Marthanda Varma’s army.
22.Mavelikara Treaty was between Dutch and Marthanda Varma in 1753. According to this treaty, Dutch accepted the demand from Travancore that they did not enter into local region administration and also will not make any treat with travancore’s enemies.
23.It was by the Dutch, who produced Salt from the Uppalam in the coastal regions. They also spread the technique of colouring.
24.The presence of dutch people made good changes in the field of Garden creation, furniture production and utensils production. Most important contribution of Dutch to Kerala is the monumental work, Horthus Malabaricus. It was compiled under the patronage of Admiral Van Rheede.
25.The ‘Pantakasalai’ was established in Mayyazhi by French in 1722.
26.The two trade centers of Denmark in Kerala were Kulachal and Idava.
27.First Englishman who came to Kerala was perhaps Master Ralph Fitch. He is known as ‘‘Pioneer Englishman’’ (1583).
28.The first englishman who reached Kerala as a part of trade is Captain Keeling in 1615.
29.According to Srirangapattanam treaty between British and Tipu Sultan in 1792, British got Malabar.
30.Malabar Manual is the work prepared by William Logan in 1887, who earlier worked as Magistrate of Malabar, Judge and District Collector in between an interval of 20 years. It mentions about the geography, people, living style, language, culture, religion, castes and so on.
1.The oldest work which mentions Kerala was ‘Aitareya Aranyakam’.
2.The sangam period work, which mentions Onam is ‘Maduraikanchi’.
3.The author of ancient roman work ‘Natural History’ which mentions Kodugallore is Pliny.
4.The place which is called as ‘Muziris’ that mentioned in ancient scripts were Kodugallore.
5.The year in which huge flood occurred in Periyar, which resulted in devastation of Kodugallore Harbour is 1341. It later resulted in the formation of Kochi Harbour.
6.It was from Arabi travellers, Malayalam got the words Kathu, Harji, Vakeel, Taluk, Keesha, Kacheri and Japti.
7.It was from Chinese travellers, Keralites discovered the technique of making Soil Utensils.
8.The Buddha idol that discovered from Karumadi near to Ambalapuzha is called as Karumadikuttan.
9.Trikannamatilakam is the famous jain religion center of Ancient Kerala.
10.Sreemoolavasam is the major Buddha religion center of Ancient Kerala.
11.Kantalur Sali is called as ‘Dakshina Nalanda’ of Ancient Kerala, which is the popular education center.
12.Vikramaditya Varagunan is the Ay ruler who is called as ‘Asoka of South India’.
13.The year in which Jesus’s apostle ‘St Thomas’ visited Malliankara near Kodugallore is AD 52.
14.The year in which jewish people reached Kerala from Jerusalem after religion discrimination is AD 68.
15.The ruler who released Terisapalli Copper Plate in AD 849 is Ayyan Adikal (Governor of Sthanu Ravi Varman) of Venad.
16.The ruler who released Jewish Plate in AD 1000 is Bhaskara Ravi Varman. This plate granted the right to collect taxes and the position of ‘Anchuvannam’ to the Jewish noble, Joseph Rabban.
17.Manigramam, Anchuvannam and ‘Valanchiur’ were famous merchant’s guilds of the period.
18. The merchant guild also called as Anchuvannam belongs to jews.
19.The merchant guild of Syrian Christians in Ancient Kerala is ‘Manigramam’.
20.The major merchant guild of ancient kerala who had trade link with foreign people is Valanchiur.
21.Manigramam is the merchant guild who engaged in gem trade.
22.The famous scholar of ancient kerala, Sarvajnana Muni was in the court of Bhaskara Ravi Varma.
23.The main duty of Nootuvar Sangam during the period of Perumakkans was country protection.
24.General behaviour laws were the kachangal during Perumakkanmar’s period.
25.Moozhikulam Kacham is the approved Kacham which was considered as the important law throughour ancient kerala.
26.Sankaracharya was born in AD 788.
27.Kolla Varsha was started in AD 825.
28.It is generally believed that, Udaya Marthanda Varma started Kolla Varsham.
29.The famous poet of Ancient Kerala, Athulan was from the court of Mushaka King ‘Sree Kandan’.
30.The work ‘Mushaka Vamsam’ was written by Athulan.
31.The current name of Thiruvanchikulam or Mahodayapuram (which is once was the center of Cheras) is Kodugallor.
32.The most popular ruler of Ezhimala Kingdom is Nannan.
33.The ancient greek sailor who discovered the direction of Monsoon wind is Hippalus (AD 45).
34.The harbour of Kerala which was once the major trade center of china is Kollam.
35.It was in Palakkad, a hill with the name ‘Jainamedu’ is located in Kerala.
36.Manimekhalai is tamil notable work, which is considered as a complete Buddha poem.
37.The Bhakti movement had two branches in ancient kerala, ie the Vaishnavites led by the Alwars and the saivites led by the Nayanars.
38.The Synod of Diamper (Udayamperur Sunnahadose) to reform Kerala Church was conducted by the Portuguese in 20 June 1599.
39.The ‘‘Oath of the Coonan Cross’ against the appointment of Latin Bishop was conducted in Mattancherry in 1653.
40.Sankaracharya was born in Kaladi in AD 788.
41.Sankaracharya is called as Modern Buddha.
42.Vivekachoodamani, Saundarya Lahari, Sivanandalahari, Updeshasahasri, Atmabodha and Mohamudra were the important poems of Sankaracharya.
43.Sankaracharya founded four mutts in four corners of India; Badrinath in the North (Jyotir Mutt) Puri in the east (Govardhan) Dwaraka in the West (Sarada Mutt) and Sringeri in the south.
44.Govindapadar is the teacher of Sankaracharya.
45.Sankaracharya retired his life in AD 820.
46.The work ‘Sankaranarayaneeyam’ written by Sankara Narayanan was related to Mathematics.
47.‘Koodiyattam’ is the kerala sanskrit art play.
48.The land got as gift for temples is called as Devaswom Land.
49.Cherikkal Land is the land wealth which was under the control of Kings and Feudal lords.
50.The land wealth given as gift for Temple Kazhakas is Viruthi Land.
51.It was under the protection of Udhaya Varman (1446 - 1478) who was the ruler of Kolathu Nadu, Cherussery wrote Krishna Gatha.
52.Travancore was called as Venad during Medieval Ages.
53.Kollam is called as Desingnadu in earlier period.
54.VeeraRaghava Pattayam (Iravikorthan Cheped) was given to a Christian noble by Veera Ravi Varma. It gave Manigrama Pattam and other special rights.
55.Mahuan is the chinese traveller who visited kerala.
56.Vadassery Namboothiri is the keralite, who started a new mathematical science system called Duganitham.
57.It was from the court of Kozhikode Zamorin ‘Manavikraman’, ‘Pathinettara Kavikal’ is famous.
58.Poonam Namboothiri is the half poet of ‘Pathinettara Kavikal’.
59.The Nair soldiers were called as ‘Changatam’, who were appointed for protecting the wealth in temple goudons in Ancient Kerala.
Main Agricultural Research Centers of Kerala
1.Rubber Institute of India - Kottayam
2.Cardamom Research Institute - Pampadumpara
3.Harvest Research Institute - Karamana
4.Pepper Research Institute - Panniyur
5.Central Plantation Crops Research Institute - Kasargod
6.Spices Research Institute - Kozhikode
7.Pineapple Research Institute - Vellanikkara
8.Central Tuber Crops Research Institute - Sreekaryam
9.Sugarcane Research Centres - Thiruvalla and Menonpara
10.Coconut Research Institute - Kadachalkuzhi (Balaramapuram)
11.Cashew Research Centre - Anakkayam
12.Agronomic Research Station - Chalakkudi
13.Rice Research Centres - Vyttila, Kayamkulam,(Pattambi,and Mankomp)
14.Ginger Research Institute - Ambalavayal
15.Indo-Swiz Project - Mattupetti
16.Indo-Norwegian Project - Neendakara
17.C.P.C.R.I - Palode
18.Forest Research Institute - Peechi