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Space Voyages: Astronauts are the voyagers who are trained to travel in a spacecraft. Cosmonaut was a Russian astronaut whereas Taikonaut was a Chinese astronaut. Konstantin Tsiolkovsky is called as the father of space science. He was a Russian. Sputnik is the first artificial satellite. Sputnik was first launched by Soviet Union in 1957, October 4. The radiation belt of Earth (Van Allen radiation belt) was founded by the Space voyager, Explorer III launched by America in 1958. The first animal that travelled around the earth in space is a dog named Laika. It was in the space vehicle Sputnik 2, Laika travelled around the world.

The first Space traveler of world is soviet born, Yuri Gagarin. It was in 1961, April 12th Yuri Gagarin travelled in the spacecraft, Vostok – 1. The first women space traveler is from Soviet Union, Valentina Tereshkova in 1963. The first spacecraft that landed moon is Soviet Union’s “Luna 2” in September 1959. The man who first walked in Space is Alexey Leonov. The first woman to become a commander of space vehicle is Eileen Collins of America. Collins worked as the commander of Columbia Space Mission in 1999 July. The first artificial satellite that America launched is Explorer – 1 in 1958. The busiest space launching centre of world is Kourou in French Guiana. It is located at South American Continent. Solar Cells are the main source of energy for artificial satellites. Baikonur Cosmodrome is the oldest satellite launching centre of world. It is located at Kazakhstan. Cape Canaveral is the famous space launching centre of America. It is located at Florida. Kennedy Space Center is also located here. The place is located at the coast of Atlantica and is known as “Space Coast”. Cospas-Sarsat System is the international league for helping the space mission activities by world countries.

The space vehicles that landed in Mars for study and research is Spirit and Opportunity. It was in 2004 January 3, the Spirit landed in Gusev Mountain range. Opportunity landed in Meridiani Planum in Mars in 2004 January 25. Messenger is the Nasa launched vehicle in 2004 August 3 for studying the Mercury. Genesis is the mission of Nasa for collecting pieces of the Sun, called solar wind. But Genesis broken down after returning successfully completed the mission of collecting pieces of the Sun. It was in 2004, September 8, Genesis broken down. Carl Sagan Memorial is located at Mars. Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) is the space mission for studying origin of Universe. Salyut is the first space center and it is by Soviet Union. The first space center of America is “Skyline”. “Hubble” is the first space telescope. The Columbia Memorial Station is located at Mars built in memory of those who lost lives in Space Shuttle Columbia disaster. Path Finder is the Space Mission in Mars. New Horizons is the mission launched in 2006 January 19 for studying Pluto and its Satellites. COROT (Convection, Rotation and Planetary Transits) launched in 2006, December 27 by France in order to find other planets which is similar to Earth. It is launched at about 900 kilometer height from Earth. COROT have 27 cm length and can study about 1, 20,000 stars.

Herschel and Planck are the telescopes launched in 2009 May. Herschel is the largest telescope launched till day. Panspermia Theory is the hypothesis that states that that life exists throughout the Universe, dispersed by meteoroids, asteroids, comets and planetoids. Chandra Wickramasinghe and Fred Hoyle are the explorers of this Theory. The meaning of word Sputnik in Russian Language is “fellow traveler of earth”. Vanguard 1 is the oldest artificial satellite that rotating the earth. Vanguard 1 was launched by America in 1958, March. The first artificial Satellite that works with solar energy is Vanguard 1. The Pioneer 10 of America is the first man made space probe. Also it reached near Saturn Planet and was the first to reach near Saturn. The first human to walk in Space is Alexey Leonov of Soviet Union in 1965 March 18. He reached space in the vehicle, Voskhod 2. Soviet Union launched 24 space vehicles between the years 1959 to 1976. These vehicles were included in the mission of Luna. Luna – 2 is the first man made space vehicle that touched the surface of moon. Luna 3 is the first vehicle to capture the photos of Moon’s other side. The Venera vehicles were launched by Soviet Union for studying Venus. Venera 1 is the first artificial vehicle that flied around the venus. Venera 3 is the first vehicle that landed in Venus and is also the first vehicle that landed in other planet. Venera 7 landed Venus and is the first spave probe that landed in other planet.

America launched Ranger Vehicles from 1961 to 1965 for studying moon. Mariner – 9 that rotated Mars launched by America is the first artificial vehicle to do that. America launched Gemini 8, which is the first spacecraft that combined with another spacecraft at space. The Apollo is the space missions to moon done by America. Through the Apollo missions from 1968 to 1972, 12 Americans landed moon from 11 missions. Apollo 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, 17 were the missions that took human to moon and returned. Salyut -1 in Soviet Union is the first space launching center of the world. Salyut 1 was launched in 1971 April 19. America launched “Viking” in 1975 for studying the Mars. Mir was a space station launched in 1986. Galileo Spacecraft is launched for studying Jupiter Planet in 1989.



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