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World Creation according to Hinduism: There is no one simple account of creation of World/Universe, and there are many detailed and inter-related stories in different Puranas. Rigveda, the earliest hindu text mentioned about the creation of universe. It explains that due to the process of Hiranyagarbha ("golden embryo"), universe is formed. Hiranyagarbha can be compared with the “world egg” found in several creation myths. According to Nasadiya Sukta of Rigveda, God came into being after the world's creation, and there are no evidences on when the world first came into being. Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva are the trinity of gods in Hinduism. Brahma is considered as creator, Vishnu as protector and Shiva as destructor. These trinities can be compared with Cyclical Universe Theory in physical cosmology. According to Cyclical Universe Theory, Big Bang is birth of the universe (Brahma), life of the universe (Vishnu), and the Big Crunch is destruction of the universe (Shiva).

In Purusha Sukta of Rigveda, Purusha is described as the primeval cosmic being, his mind is Moon, his eyes are Sun, and his breath is the wind. Viraj is a primeval goddess and is considered as the secondary creator, which splited from Purusha and Purusha in turn is born from Viraj. In, Manu Smriti 1.32, it is mentioned that Brahma divided Purusha into two as male and female. It is from Purusha’s body, the world and the varnas (classes) are built. The female Viraj produced Svayambhuva Manu who later created the ten Prajapatis. Prajapati means protector and preserver (King). According to Srimad Bhagavatam, the Prajapatis were Vishvakarman, Marichi, Atri, Angiras, Pulastya, Pulaha, Kratu, Vasishtha, Daksha and Bhrigu. Vishvakarman headed the ten Prajapatis and these Prajapatis performed the creation of the remaining Universe.

According to Hindu cosmology, the universe is cyclically created and destroyed in once every 4.1 to 8.2 billion years, which is one full day for Brahma. The world is passing through Yugas. It is changed from Golden Age of Satya Yuga to Dark Age of Kali Yuga.  The Yugas passed were Satya Yuga, Treta Yuga, Dwapara Yuga and Kali Yuga. These four yugas follow a timeline ratio of (4:3:2:1).

Satya Yuga: Virtue reigns supreme. Human height was 21 cubits. Normal human lifetime was 100,000 years. The duration of the Satya-yuga is 1,728,000 years. The avatars of Vishnu in Satya Yuga were Matsya, Kurma, Varaha and Narasimha.

Treta Yuga: There was 3 quarter virtue & 1 quarter sin. Human height was 14 cubits. Normal human lifetime was 10,000 years. The duration of the Treta-yuga is 1,296,000 years. The avatars of Vishnu in Treta Yuga were Vamana, Parashurama and Rama.

Dwapara Yuga: There was 1 half virtue & 1 half sin. Human height was 7 cubits. Normal human lifetime was 1000 years. The duration of the Dwapara Yuga is 864,000 years. The avatars of Vishnu in Dwapara Yuga were Balarama and Krishna.

Kali Yuga: There is 1 quarter virtue & 3 quarter sin. Human height is 3.5 cubits. Normal human lifetime will be 100 years. The human lifetime will decrease to 20 years at the end of Kali Yuga. The duration of the Kali Yuga is 432,000 years. Kalki in Kali Yuga is the tenth avatar of Vishnu. We are living in the Kali Yuga.
Prehistory: Geologists believe that it is from seismic activity, steadily or rapidly the land was formed. Chathanparambu near Farrokh is a famous prehistoric site in the Malabar region. Archaeological studies have identified many Mesolithic, Neolithic and Megalithic sites in Kerala. These findings have been classified into Laterite rock-cut caves (Chenkallara), Hood stones (Kudakkallu), Hat stones (Toppikallu), Dolmenoid cists (Kalvrtham), Urn burials (Nannangadi) and Menhirs (Pulachikallu). The studies point to the indigenous development of the ancient Kerala society and its culture beginning from the Paleolithic age, and its continuity through Mesolithic, Neolithic and Megalithic ages.


The archaeological findings include dolmens of the Neolithic era, in the Marayur area. They are locally known as "muniyara", derived from muni (hermit or sage) and ara (dolmen). Rock engravings in the Edakkal Caves (shown in figure above) in the Ambukuthi hills of Wayanad are thought to date from the early to late Neolithic eras around 5000 BCE.

BC 1000 - BC 900: King Solomon in Kerala










AD 216 - 428: Age of Perumals







AD 788 - 820: Adi Shankara Period








AD 1000: Jewish copper-plate issued by Bhaskara Varma

AD 1019: Rajendra Cholan attacked Kerala

AD 1045 - 1729:  Ettara yogam rule in Temples of Southern Kerala

AD 1090 - AD 1729: Venad Rule in Southern Kerala

AD 1100: Vembolinadu splits to Vadakkumkoor and Thekkumkoor

AD 1292: Marco Polo visited Kerala

AD 1295: Establishment of City Kozhikode

AD 1322: Friar Odoric of Pordenone in Kerala

AD 1324: Friar Jordanus in Kerala

AD 1341: Muziris devastated

AD 1342 - 1347: Ibn Battuta visited Kozhikode

AD 1375 - 1475: Cherusseri Namboothiri Period

AD 1405: Perumpadappu Swaroopam shifted

AD 1409: Ma Huan visited Kerala

AD 1440: Nicholo Conti in Kerala

AD 1443: Abdur Razzaq visited Kozhikode

AD 1466 - 1471: Pathinettara Kavikal

AD 1495 - 1575: Period of Thunjath Ramanujan Ezhuthachan

AD 1498: Vasco da Gama in Kappad, Kozhikode

AD 1499: Pedro Alvares Cabral in Kozhikode

AD 1503: Portuguese Fort in Kochi

AD 1504: Kodungalloor War between Kochi and Kozhikkode

AD 1505: Francisco de Almeida in Kannur

AD 1509: Afonso de Albuquerque, first Governor of Portuguese India

AD 1510: War between Portuguese and Zamorins

AD 1514: Invasion of Cochin by Zamorins

AD 1515: Treaty between Portuguese governor and Kollam Queen

AD 1525: Portuguese navy force invaded Ponnani

AD 1531: Portuguese builded fort at Chaliyath

AD 1540: Treaty between Portuguese and Kozhikode

AD 1555: Portuguese built a palace at Mattanchery

AD 1564: Portuguese fort attacked by Samoothiri

AD 1567: Jewish Synagogue established at Mattanchery

AD 1571: Samoothiri invaded Chaliyam Fort

AD 1579: Printing Press started at Vypinkara and Cochin

AD 1586: Melpathur Narayana Bhattathiri wrote Narayaneeyam

AD 1592: Establishment of Dutch East India Company

AD 1599: Udayamperoor Synod

AD 1600: Portuguese army killed Kunjali – 4

AD 1604: Dutch Ships arrived at Kochi for first time

AD 1616: Captian Keeling reached Kerala

AD 1634: Kaniyamkulam war

AD 1644: British builded a trading place in Vizhinjam

AD 1645: Valmiki Ramayanam translated to Malayalam

AD 1653: The Coonan Cross Oath

AD 1663: Dutch invaded Kochi from Portuguese

AD 1677 - 1684: Umayamma Rani Period in Venad

AD 1678: Hortus Malabaricus Published

AD 1684: A fort at Anjuthengu by British

AD 1691: Vettam War

AD 1694: The British built factory at Thalassery

AD 1696: Kerala Varma abolished Pulappedi and Mannapedi

AD 1699: Arnos Pathri reached Kerala

AD 1701 - 1721: Rule of Rama Varma

AD 1708: British East India Company built Tellicherry Fort

AD 1715 - 1717: War between Samoothiri and Dutch

AD 1721: Attingal Outbreak (Anjengo Revolt)

AD 1723: Treaty between Travancore and British

AD 1725: Mayyazhi becomes French colony

AD 1729: Emergence of Modern Travancore

AD 1731: Sree Padmanabha Swami Temple Rebuilt

AD 1739: Preparation of land records by Mallan Sankaran

AD 1741: Marthanda Varma defeated Dutch in Colachel War

AD 1742: Elayadath Swaroopam merged with Travancore

AD 1744: Bolgatty Palace built by Dutch in Kochi

AD 1746: Marthanda Varma invaded Kayamkulam

AD 1749: Thekkumkoor merged with Travancore

AD 1750: Thrippadi Danam of Marthanda Varma

AD 1753: Agreement between Travancore and Dutch

AD 1755: Last Mamankam festival in Thirunavaya

AD 1758: Dharma Raja succeeded Travancore

AD 1758: Hyder Ali attacked South Kerala

AD 1761: Land Tax was first introduced in Kochi

AD 1766: Hyder Ali built a fort in Palakkad

AD 1772: Father Clement's Sankshepa Vedartham Published

AD 1773: Hyder Ali defeats Samuthiri at Kochi

AD 1779: British captured Mayyazhi (Mahe)

AD 1788: Tipu Sultan attacks Kozhikode

AD 1789: Tipu Sultan attacked Nedumkotta

AD 1789: Raja Keshavadas, dewan of Travancore

AD 1790: Sakthan Thampuran becomes ruler of Cochin

AD 1792: Srirangapatna Treaty between Tipu and British

AD 1793: British Malabar with Calicut as Capital

AD 1793 - 1797: Pazhassi Revolt against British

AD 1795: The fall of Dutch Kochi

AD 1795: Travancore accepted the British Supremacy

AD 1798: Balarama Varma succeeded Travancore

AD 1799: Raja Keshavadas died

AD 1800: Colonel Macaulay, resident for Travancore and Cochin

AD 1800: Malabar, a province of Madras presidency

AD 1802: Veluthampi, Dalawa of Travancore

AD 1805: Shakthan Thampuran Died

AD 1805: Pazhassi Raja Murdered

AD 1807: London Mission in Kerala

AD 1809: Kundara Proclamation

AD 1810: Gouri Lakshmi Bai succeeded Travancore

AD 1812: Kurichiya revolt in Wayanad

AD 1812: Slave trade abolished in Travancore

AD 1815: Rani Gouri Parvati Bai succeeded Travancore

AD 1818: Rev J Dosan built an English School at Mattancherry

AD 1821: CMS press built in Kottayam

AD 1829: Swathi Thirunal succeeded Travancore

AD 1830: Hazoor Kacheri shifted from Kollam to Kottakakam

AD 1831: First Census was conducted in Travancore

AD 1834: First English School built by Swathi Thirunal

AD 1834: First Kaneshumari in Travancore

AD 1836: Star Bungalow in Thiruvananthapuram

AD 1845: First English Medium School in Ernakulam

AD 1846: First English-Malayalam Dictionary published

AD 1846: Uthram Thirunal succeeded Travancore

AD 1847: Herman Gundert published Rajyasamacharam

AD 1853 - 1854: Slaves released in Travancore and Kochi

AD 1853 - 1924: Chattampi Swamikal Period

AD 1854: Malabar Special Police (MSP) organized

AD 1855 - 1928: Sree Narayana Guru Period

AD 1855: Malabar Collector, HV Konoli killed

AD 1858: Sir T Madhava Rao, Dewan of Travancore

AD 1859: First Coir Factory in Alappuzha

AD 1860: First College of Kerala, CMS is Established

AD 1861: Ayilyam Thirunal succeded Travancore

AD 1861: First Railway Line between Beypore & Tirur

AD 1862: Tellicherry Brennen School started

AD 1863 - 1941: Ayyankali Period

AD 1864: First Government Hospital of Kerala in Trivandrum

AD 1865: Pandara Pattam Proclamation

AD 1866: English School built in Trivandrum

AD 1869: Inauguration of new Secretariat in Trivandrum

AD 1872: Herman Gundert wrote Malayalam English Dictionary

AD 1873 - 1924: Kumaran Asan Period

AD 1873 - 1932: Vakkom Moulavi Period

AD 1874: Government Law College in Trivandrum

AD 1877: Construction of Main Central Road Completed

AD 1878 - 1916: Swadeshabhimani Ramakrishna Pillai Period

AD 1880: Visakham Thirunal succeeded Travancore

AD 1883: Land Survey in Travancore Started

AD 1885: Sree Moolam Thirunal succeeded Travancore

AD 1887: Newspaper “Deepika” Started

AD 1887: First Novel in Malayalam Kundalatha published

AD 1887: Malabar Manual published by William Logan

AD 1888: Malayala Manorama Newspaper Started

AD 1888: Travancore Legislative Council established

AD 1888: Aruvippuram Revolt

AD 1889: First Novel “Indhulekha” by O. Chandu Menon

AD 1889: First Ayurveda College in Kerala

AD 1889 - 1968: Sahodaran K Ayyappan Period

AD 1889 - 1971: K. Kelappan Period

AD 1891: Malayali Memorial Agitation

AD 1896: Ezhava Memorial Memorandum

AD 1896 - 1974: VK Krishna Menon Period

AD 1896: Janmi Kudiyan Regulation Act in Travancore

AD 1900: Visit of British Viceroy, Lord Curzon in Travancore

AD 1900: Ezhava Memorial in 1990

AD 1901: Ramakrishna Pillai started “Kerala Panchika”

AD 1902: Rubber Cultivation started in Kerala

AD 1903: Sree Narayana Dharma Paripalana Yogam registered

AD 1904: Sree Moolam Popular Assembly started

AD 1904: First Railway in Travancore between Thirunelveli and Kollam

AD 1904: Bi-monthly magazine of SNDP, Vivekodayam started

AD 1905: Vakkom Moulavi started Swadeshabhimani Newspaper

AD 1905: Ayyankali started a school to teach Dalit children

AD 1906: K Ramakrishna Pillai, editor of Swadeshabhimani

AD 1906: Raja Ravi Varma, great painter Died

AD 1907: Ayyankali founded Sadhujana Paripalana Sangham

AD 1907: Kumaran Asan's, Veena Poovu published

AD 1908: Yogakshema Sabha started

AD 1909: First farmer group strike in kerala by Ayyankali

AD 1909: Bhasa Sanskrit, discovered from Manalikkara Matham

AD 1910: Swadeshabhimani K Ramakrishna Pillai was deported

AD 1911: Kerala Kaumudhi was founded

AD 1912: Malayalam edition of Karl Marx was published

AD 1912: Sree Sarada Pradishta in Sivagiri by Narayana Guru

AD 1913: Kodugallur Kunjikuttan Thampuran Died

AD 1914: Nair Bhruthya Janasangham was formed

AD 1914: Kerala Varma Valiya Koil Thampuran died

AD 1914: Sree Narayana Guru built Advaita Ashramam

AD 1915: Ooruttambalam Revolt

AD 1915: Vagbhatananda Gurudevan founded “Atma Vidhya Sangam “

AD 1916: Swadeshabhimani K Ramakrishna Pillai died

AD 1917: Sahodara Sangham established by K Ayyappan

AD 1918: Cochin Rajya Prajamandalam started

AD 1918: CV Ramanpillai wrote novel “Ramaraja Bahadur”

AD 1919: Construction of Wellington Island in Kochi started

AD 1919: Sambavar Sangam formed in Travancore

AD 1920: Gandhi visited Kerala for the first time

AD 1920: “Liquor is poison, make it not, sell it not, and drink it not”

AD 1920: Kerala Pradesh Congress Committee (KPCC) formation

AD 1921: All Kerala Congress Political Conference at Ottappalam

AD 1921: Malabar Rebellion

AD 1921: Wagon Tragedy

AD 1922: CV Raman Pillai died

AD 1922: Travancore Labor Association was formed

AD 1922: Rabindranath Tagore visited Sree Narayana Guru

AD 1923: Mathrubhumi, tri weekly started

AD 1923: Vakkom Moulavi founded Kerala Muslim Aikya sangham

AD 1924: Vaikkom Sathyagraham

AD 1924: Samadhi of Chattambi Swamikal

AD 1924: Kumaran Asan died in a boat accident in Alappuzha

AD 1925: Mahatma Gandhi visited Kerala for the second time

AD 1925: 'Makkathayam' was introduced by NSS

AD 1925: Cochin legislative Council was inaugurated

AD 1926: Sethu Lakshmi Bayi passed the Newspaper Regulation

AD 1927: Third visit of Mahatma Gandhi in Kerala

AD 1927: Samastha Kerala Sahitya Parishath started

AD 1928: Sri Narayana Guru samadhi at Sivagiri

AD 1928: Aikya Kerala Movement

AD 1929: Nattu Rajya Praja Sammelanam was held

AD 1929: First film production company of Kerala, Kerala Cinetown

AD 1930: Kerala Kalamandalam established

AD 1930: Salt Satyagraha also created waves in Kerala

AD 1930: Kerala Kalamandalam was established

AD 1930: First silent film in Malayalam, Vigathakumaran

AD 1930: P Subramoniyam started “New Theatre”

AD 1931: VT Bhattathiripad performed Yachana Yatra

AD 1931: Guruvayoor Sathyagraha

AD 1932: Nivarthana Agitation in Travancore

AD 1933: United Muslim Association becomes State Muslim Association

AD 1933: Chithira Thirunal, first rulerof Travancore to travel in Sea

AD 1933: Second Malayalam silent film, “Marthanda Varma”

AD 1934: Mahatma Gandhi’s fourth Kerala visit

AD 1934: Split in Congress. Rise of the Leftists and Rightists

AD 1935: First Aeroplane service was started in kerala

AD 1935: Communist party formed in Malabar

AD 1936: AK Gopalan led the hunger march (Pattini Jatha)

AD 1936: CP Ramaswami Iyer, Dewan of Travancore

AD 1936: Temple Entry Proclamation

AD 1936: Electricity agitation in Cochin State

AD 1937: Travancore University was founded

AD 1937: Fifth and final visit of Gandhi in Kerala

AD 1938: Communism in Kerala Started

AD 1938: First talkie film in Malayalam, Balan

AD 1939: Uttaravada Rule in Travancore started

AD 1939: Rajadhani March led by Akkamma Cheriyan

AD 1940: Morazha Incident took place in Kannur

AD 1940: First Hydro Electric Project in Kerala at Pallivasal

AD 1941: Formation of Cochin Rajya Prajamandalam

AD 1941: Kayyur Struggle – The Kayyur Riot

AD 1941: Ayyankali died

AD 1942: Communist Newspaper, Deshabhimani started

AD 1943: First Radio Station started in Thiruvananthapuram

AD 1944: First Novel of Vaikom Basheer, Balyakalasakhi

AD 1945: National Book Stall started at Kottayam

AD 1945: Sahitya Pravarthaka Sahakarana Sangham started

AD 1946: "American model” administration in Travancore

AD 1946: Punnapra-Vayalar Revolt

AD 1947: Unsuccessful murder attempt against CP Ramaswami Iyer

AD 1947: Diwan rule in Kochi came to an end

AD 1948: First General Election in Travancore

AD 1949: Thiru - Kochi came into existence

AD 1950: The events in Kerala History

AD 1951: C Kesavan became the prime minister of Thiru-Kochi

AD 1951: First super hit film “Jeevitha Nouka” released

AD 1951: Kerala Peoples Art Club (KPAC) founded

AD 1952: AJ John became the first elected chief minister of Thiru Kochi

AD 1953: Resignation of AJ John Government

AD 1954: “Neelakuyil” released which later got Silver Medal of President

AD 1954: Pattom Thanu Pillai, chief minister of Travancore- Cochin

AD 1954: Mayyazhi (Mahe) formerly a French colony got independence

AD 1954: IK Kumaran Master represented Mayyazhi Mahajana Sabha

AD 1955: Pattom Thanu Pillai resigned

AD 1955: President Rule for the first time in Kerala

AD 1956: Novel Chemmeen of Thakazhi Sivasankara Pillai was published

AD 1956: Kerala Sahitya Academy was formed

AD 1956: Merge of Malabar and Thiru-Kochi

AD 1956: Kerala High Court established in November 1

AD 1956: B Ramakrishna Rao became the first Governor

AD 1956: Thomas Mundassery started Current Books

AD 1957: Palakkad, Kozhikode and Thrissur districts formed

AD 1957: First General Election. LDF won, EMS first chief minister

AD 1957: Kerala Cabinet introduced Kudiyozhippikkal Ordinance

AD 1957: Alappuzha District came to existence

AD 1957: Niyamasabha passed the ordinance of Education bill

AD 1957: Medical College in Kozhikode

AD 1957: Travancore University is re-named to Kerala University

AD 1957: Establishment of KSEB

AD 1958: Mahakavi Vallathil died

AD 1958: Ernakulam District came into existence

AD 1958: Kerala Sangeetha Nataka Academy established

AD 1958: Neyyar, Peechi Vazhani Wildlife Sanctuary

AD 1959: Colonel Goda Varma Raja introduced the second flying club

AD 1959: Anna Chandy first women judge of India, Kerala High Court

AD 1959: The Liberation Struggle (Vimochana Samaram)

AD 1959: Kerala Karshaka Sangham founded

AD 1960: Kerala Panchayat Raj established

AD 1960: Sri VV Giri appointed Governor of Kerala

AD 1960: Congress – PSP led Government came to power

AD 1960: Vardhakya Pension introduced

AD 1961: President accepted Kerala Karshika Boobhanda Bill

AD 1961: Power House in Neriyamangalam

AD 1961: Kerala State Industrial Development Corporation established

AD 1961: Kerala Postal Circle established

AD 1962: Guruvayoor Township established

AD 1962: Kerala Sastra Sahitya Parishad established in Kozhikode

AD 1962: Pattom Thanu Pillai resigned & R Sankar became Chief Minister

AD 1962: Kozhikode Corporation came into existence

AD 1962: Kerala Lalitha Kala Academy

AD 1963: Thumba Rocket Launching Centre established

AD 1963: Kizhanguvila Research Centre established

AD 1963: Kerala Land Reforms Act passed

AD 1963: Indo Swiss Project in Mattupetty established

AD 1963: Sardar KM Panicker died

AD 1964: Cochin Port Trust came into existence

AD 1964: Home Minister of Kerala, PT Chacko resigned

AD 1964: PK Kunju presented Avishwasa Prameyam

AD 1964: Kerala Congress founded under the leadership of KM George

AD 1964: Communist Party of India split as CPI (M) and CPI

AD 1965: President’s rule in the state for the fourth time

AD 1965: KSRTC came into existence in April 1

AD 1965: Kerala ‘Chitralekha’ started in Thiruvananthapuram

AD 1965: G Sankara Kurup got the first Jnanapeeta Award

AD 1966: Indira Gandhi inaugurated the HMT unit in Kalamassery

AD 1966: Asan Smarakam built in Thonnakkal

AD 1966: Kerala Prevention of Eviction Act

AD 1966: Chemmeen released in 1965

AD 1966: Kerala Tourism Development Corporation (KTDC) established

AD 1967: EMS became the chief minister of the state

AD 1967: Government introduced Lottery Tickets and Chit Funds

AD 1967: Sabarigiri Project located at Moozhiyar under Central Government

AD 1967: First rocket built in India was launched from Thumba

AD 1967: Assembly seats increased from 126 to 133

AD 1968: First Kerala lottery draws in January 26

AD 1968: Thumba Rocket Launching Centre was taken by UNO

AD 1968: Municipal Elections all over Kerala

AD 1968: Calicut University established in Kozhikode

AD 1968: Kerala Bhasha Institute established

AD 1968: Sarada got the national award for Thulabharam

AD 1968: G Shankarakurup founded the Odakuzhal Award

AD 1969: Government decided to give Education free

AD 1969: Kerala Sahakarana Sangham law passed

AD 1969: Joseph Parecattil became the first Cardinal from Kerala

AD 1969: Resignation of Kerala Chief Minister EMS

AD 1969: President accepted the Land Reform bill

AD 1969: KSFE established

AD 1970: Kerala Land Reform Act came into existence

AD 1970: Governor dismissed the Niyamasabha

AD 1970: The cabinet of Achutha Menon resigned

AD 1970: Midterm Election was held, Achutha Menon won

AD 1970: Kerala Cashew Nut Development Corporation

AD 1970: Mannathu Padmanabhan and Pattom Thanu Pillai died

AD 1971: Cochin University came into existence in January

AD 1971: Agricultural University in Mannuthy

AD 1971: Balasahitya Institute in Kerala in May 27

AD 1971: Actor Sathyan died

AD 1971: K Kelappan died

AD 1971: Dr Vikram Sarabhai died

AD 1972: Formation of Iddukki District

AD 1972: Inauguration of Cochin Ship Building Yard

AD 1972: MN Govindan Nair introduced Laksham Veedu Colony

AD 1972: Marxist Party’s strike for taking back Micha Bhoomi

AD 1972: Thumba Rocket Launching Centre becomes VSSC

AD 1972: Kuttiyadi Power Project established

AD 1972: Swayamvaram got the national award for best film

AD 1973: Kerala won Santhosh Trophy Football for first time

AD 1973: Kerala Highway Research Institute established

AD 1974: Construction of tall Arch Dam in Idukki completed

AD 1974: Shipping Corporation of India established

AD 1974: Former Union Defence Minister, VK Krishna Menon died

AD 1975: Hindu Marriage Act came into existence

AD 1975: GV Raja Sports School established

AD 1975: Introduction of Magna Carta of Kerala Act

AD 1975: Vayalar Ramavarma died

AD 1975: Eravikulam became wildlife sanctuary

AD 1975: Kerala Forest Research Institute was established

AD 1975: Kerala State Film Development Corporation established

AD 1976: Moolamattom Power Station in Idduki

AD 1976: Chitranjali Film Studio under KSFDC inaugurated

AD 1976: Inauguration of broad gauge railway track

AD 1976: Joint Family system of Kerala abolished

AD 1976: Idukki Wildlife Protection Centre came into existence

AD 1977: Assembly seats in Kerala increased from 133 to 140

AD 1977: Famous painter, KPS Panicker died

AD 1977: Election in both Lok Sabha and Legislative Council

AD 1977: AK Gopalan (AKG) died

AD 1977: Morarji Desai inaugurated the Navel Study Centre

AD 1977: Death of Joseph Mundassery

AD 1977: First kerala women received KC Elamma, Arjuna Award

AD 1978: Aeroplane Service from Trivandrum to Dubai

AD 1978: G Shankarakurup, P Kunjiraman Nair and KP Kesava Menon died

AD 1978: PK Vasudevan Nair became the Chief Minister

AD 1978: Eravikulam becomes National Park

AD 1978: Periyar Wildlife Sanctuary in Thekkady in Project Tiger

AD 1978: Cochin Stock Exchange and KSFE established

AD 1979: Pazhassi Dam in Kannur inaugurated

AD 1979: Film Director, Ramu Kariat died

AD 1979: Kerala Press Academy established in Kochi

AD 1979: Court finds the Karunakaran’s innocent in Rajan Case

AD 1979: Inaugration of Thiruvananthapuram – Kanyakumari Railway line

AD 1979: PC Kuttikrishnan, also known as Uroob died

AD 1979: Ship “Kairali” disappeared in the Arabian Sea

AD 1979: Inauguration of Trivandrum Railway Division

AD 1979: CH Muhammad Koya became the Chief Minister

AD 1979: Kerala Land Reforms Bill was passed

AD 1980: EK Nayanar became the chief Minister of Kerala

AD 1980: First ship “Rani Padmini” built in Cochin Ship Yard

AD 1980: Milma founded

AD 1980: Wayanad District came into existence

AD 1980: Jnanpith Award for SK Pottekkatt

AD 1981: The events in Kerala History

AD 1982: The events in Kerala History

AD 1983: The events in Kerala History

AD 1984: The events in Kerala History

AD 1985: The events in Kerala History

AD 1986: The events in Kerala History

AD 1987: The events in Kerala History

AD 1988: The events in Kerala History

AD 1989: The events in Kerala History

AD 1990: The events in Kerala History

AD 1991: The events in Kerala History

AD 1992: The events in Kerala History

AD 1993: The events in Kerala History

AD 1994: The events in Kerala History

AD 1995: The events in Kerala History

AD 1996: The events in Kerala History

AD 1997: The events in Kerala History

AD 1998: The events in Kerala History

AD 1999: The events in Kerala History

AD 2000: The events in Kerala History

Indus Valley Civilization :

Also known as Bronze Age Civilization extended from Northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan to India. It flourished from the river Indus and is one of the ancient civilizations of the world. It is also known in the name of Harappan Culture. It is believed that most of the cities of Indus Valley Civilization were abandoned and collapsed due to the invasion of Aryans from Indo-European tribe or other natural Disasters. Making Bricks is the main occupation of the people during that period. Pashupati (Shiva) and goddess are the chief devotional gods of the people. Sumerian People call them Meluhha. Wheat and Barly are the chief food materials. Lothal is the main occupational centre of Harappan people. They are unaware of both Iron and Horse. Ropar in Punjab is the first found Harappan city after Indian Independence.

Harappa: Harappa is the first found place that related to Indus Valley Civilization. It was founded by Daya Ram Sahni in 1921. It is now situated in the northeast Pakistan, about 24 kilometer west of Sahiwal in Punjab on the banks of river Ravi. Harappa is mentioned in Rig Veda in the name of Hariyuppia. It is the only place that we got the evidence of burial of dead body in Cemetery H Culture.

Mohenjo-Daro: Mohenjo-Daro is an archeological site known as the hill of dead people. It was founded by RD Banerji in 1922. It is now situated at the province of Sindh, Pakistan in Larkana District. Some of the objects found in excavations include assembly halls, a bronze statue dubbed the "Dancing Girl”, a seated stone sculpture "The Priest-King", the Shiva Pashupati seal and others.

Lothal: Lothal was founded by RS Rao in 1955. It is situated near Gulf of Khambhat in Gujarat. Some of the evidences found in Lothal include sheltered harbor, discovery of copper objects, beads and other semi-precious stones.

Kalibangan: Kalibangan stand for black bangles. A Ghosh founded the Kalibangan in 1953. He found that all houses in Kalibangan had their own well in that period. Also found evidences of furrowed land, camel bones and wooden furrow. It is located on the southern banks of the Ghaggar.

Dholavira: Dholavira was founded by RS Deekshith during the period of 1985-1990 and was the last city to get the evidences of Indus Valley Civilization. It is located near Rann of Kutch in Gujarat. Dholavira is flanked by two storm water channels.

Mesopotamia Civilization:

It is believed that the early civilizations were originated near the rivers. Mesopotamian culture is one such civilization in Bronze Age and is said to be happened in Tigris–Euphrates River in modern Iraq at around BC 4000. It is called so, since the place is located between these rivers. The wheel was invented in Mesopotamia in 3500 BC. Ur is the main town of Mesopotamia. The people of Ur worshipped Nanna (Moon). It falls under Babylonian Empire. Hammurabi is the main king of Babylonian Empire. He ruled the empire from BC 1792 to BC 1750. He prepared the laws and had written the “The Code of Hammurabi”. One of the wonders of ancient world, Hanging Gardens is situated in Babylonia. Nebuchadnezzar King built the Hanging Gardens. The people of Mesopotamian respected the king same as to God. The Sumerian people of Mesopotamia invented the cuneiform script. Cuneiform Script used pictograms to represent objects. Calendar was first invented by the Mesopotamian People and it was prepared by astronomers of that period as a 12-month calendar based on the cycles of the moon. They also divided a day into 24 hours and were first in the world to do that.

Egyptian Civilization:

Herodotus, Greek historian called Egypt as the Gift of Nile. Herodotus is also known as the Father of History. It is believed that Egyptian civilization takes place in around 3150 BC with the political union of Upper and Lower Egypt under the Egyptian King, Pharaoh. People of Egypt considered Pharaoh as the god of people. Sun is the chief god of People. Mummification introduced in Egypt. Mummy is any dead body that is preserving the fleshy parts with the treatment with natron and resin and covering it in bandages. Pyramids are the tombs of Pharaoh, which is now considered as one of the seven wonders of world. The Pyramid of Khufu located at Giza near the capital Cairo is the biggest Egyptian pyramid. The pyramid Giza was built by the Pharaoh, Khufu in BC 2650. The Sphinx located in Giza with a lion's body and a human head is a greatest limestone statue. The face of the statue is considered as the face of Pharaoh Khafra. The pyramid was said to be built by 3 lakh people and took around 20 years to complete. The script used by Egyptian is Hieroglyphic script. They wrote in the leaves of Papyrus Plant. The decimal system was first introduced by Egyptians. They are the first people who introduced the Calendar System based in Sun.

Mayan Civilization:

The Maya is a Mesoamerican civilization originated in Middle America in BC 1000. There are 18 months in a year and about 20 days in a Month in their Calendar System. Mayans worshipped the Maize god. They performed human sacrifice which is ritual presenting nourishment to the gods. Maize is the major food and also the cultivation of Mayans.The pyramid built by Mayans in AD 800 is Chichen Itza, which is one among the seven wonders of world.

Aztecs Civilization:

The Aztecs emerged in AD 1200 is the current people of cities in Mexico. Tenochtitlan is the capital of Aztecs. Nahuatl is the language of Aztecs. Chinampas is the floating gardens built during the period of Aztecs.

Inca Civilization:

The Inca civilization arose from the South American highlands of Peru, Chile and Ecuador. Incas practiced Human sacrifice and also child sacrifices during important events. Incas worshipped Sun as God. Sun Festival is the famous festival of Incas. Both Mayans and Incas built the Pyramid. The Machu Picchu built by Incas is one among the seven wonders of World. Its remnants are now found in the city of Peru. Cusco was the capital of Incas. Inca Kings believed that, they were the followers of Sun.

Chinese Civilization:

In BC 800, twelve local kingdoms emerged and it was ruled by Zhou Dynasty. Upon BC third century, Ch'in, Chou and Yihu came into existence. In BC 221, Ch'in became the major power. The word ‘China’ is also derived from Ch'in. Shi Huangdi is the most popular king of Ch'in dynasty. The construction of Great Wall was also started during his period. Flooding from Huangpu River made the Chinese people life difficult. So the river is called as “Sad of China”. It is also called as Yellow Bank River. Silkworm Cultivation, Silk Cloth Farming, Metal Mirror etc were believed to be first made in China. Also the invention of papermaking is another contribution. The four main inventions of ancient china include Paper, Printing, Gunpowder and Compass. Confucianism and Taoism were the major beliefs. Confucius, who born in BC 551 in Lu state (Zou) is the founder of belief, Confucianism. His teachings were compiled in the book “Analects”. Taoism is the philosophical and religious belief founded by Laozi in BC Sixth Century. Tao Te Ching is the holy work of Taoism. The meaning of word Tao is Way or Path. Laozi is also known as the Gautama Buddha of China.
Great Wall of China: The Great Wall of China is the lengthiest man made wall in the world. It is one among the seven wonders of world. The length of this wall is 7240 kilometers. It is mainly built for the purpose of protecting the Chinese Empire against warlike peoples or other forces from north. The construction of this wall started during the period of Shi Huangdi from Ch'in Dynasty (BC 221 – BC 206). Changcheng is the Chinese name of Great Wall of China.

Ancient Greek:

The origin of Greece is believed to be emerged in the banks of Danube River. They are known in the name of Hellens. Democracy is said to be first introduced by the Greeks. Ancient Indians called the Greek People as Yavanas (Mentioned in Mahabharata). Ancient Greek City-States are commonly called as Polis. Acropolis is located in the middle of Polis, inside which a temple had replaced. The Parthenon is a temple in Greece which is dedicated to the maiden goddess, Athena. Homer is one of the greatest ancient Greek Epic Poet and also the author of Iliad and the Odyssey, which is respected ancient Greek epic poets. The incidents that took place in Trojan War are the main content of the poems. Trojan War was between the City of Troy and the Greeks. The remnants of City of Troy is now located in Turkey. Roman Poet, Virgil wrote Aeneid based on Trojan War. Sophocles, an ancient Greek tragedy dramatist who wrote Ajax, Antigone, Oedipus Rex, Electra and Oedipusat Colonus was born in 496 BC (5th Century BC). Athens and Sparta are the popular ancient Greek City-States. Peloponnesian War is between Athens and Sparta. Rafael painted the popular “The School of Athens” in between 1509 and 1511. The painting shows the popular philosophers of that era. It was now located in the Apostolic Palace in Vatican. The father of Medicine, Hippocrates had born in ancient Greece in 460 BC. Also the mathematicians, Euclid and Pythagoras are Greece born. Euclid is considered as the father of Geometry.  His notable work is Elements. “There is no royal road to geometry” is the famous quote of Euclid. Pythagoras is popular for his Pythagoras Theorem, where it states the measurements of three sides of triangle. Numbers rule the universe is the words of Pythagoras. Archimedes is also a Greek born mathematician, who introduced the Archimedes Principle. The famous quote of Archimedes is “Give me a place to stand on, and I will move the entire Earth”. His notable work is Sphere and Cylinder. Eureka is also a term used by him. Its meaning is “I find it”. The Greek Athenian philosopher, Socrates was born in BC 469. The main student of Socrates is Plato who was originally named Aristocles. Plato built a university called Academy near Athens in BC 387. The most popular work of Plato is “The Republic”. Apology of Socrates, Phaedo, Theaetetus, Sophist, Statesman, Parmenides, Crito and Symposium are other notable works of him. Aristotle is one among the main student of Plato. He is popularly called as Encyclopaediac Genius. Lyceum is the education center built by Aristotle. He is also a teacher to Alexander. The notable works of Aristotle include Politics, Categories, On Interpretation, Metaphysics, Nichomachean, Ethics, Rhetoric and Poetics.

Ancient Roman Culture:

Roman city is located on the banks of Tiber River in Italy. It is believed that roman city was founded by two brothers, Romulus and Remus. It spread through seven hills. Republic was first introduced to the world was Roman People. The modern world adapted the law and administration method from the people of ancient Romans. Concrete was first invented by Romans and also the building construction technology. The Colosseum in Ancient Rome is used to perform gladiators, combats between men, wild animals fight and so on. Slavery and Slaves exists in the society. Revolts of slaves are common in the society and one of the major among them is the revolt led by Spartacus in BC 73. Jupiter, Mars, Juno, Vesta are the main goddesses of Romans. Struggle of the Orders is considered as the first Class Conflict took place in the world. It is said to be happened in BC 500. The two sections of Rome are Plebeians and Patricians.  Julius Caesar (BC 100 – BC 44) is the most famous king of Roman Empire.  Julius Caesar in 47 BC visited Egypt and went to the Middle East, where he defeated Pontus king. Caesar called this victory as I Came, I Saw, I Conquered. In 44 BC March 15, Caesar was murdered by a group of senators led by Marcus Junius Brutus. The Punic Wars were a sequence of three wars that fought between Rome and Carthage from around BC 264 to BC 146. The remnants of old city, Carthage is now located in modern Tunisia. Hannibal is the popular military commander of Carthage.

Persian Culture (Culture Of Iran):

Ancient Persia includes the current places of Iran. Darius is the most powerful king of Persia, who ruled from BC 521 to BC 485. The Darius Empire of Persia spread up to Indus River. Zoroastrianism Religion established between BC 1400 and BC 1000 in Middle Persia and the founder of this religion is a philosopher called Zoroaster. Ahura Mazda is the god of Zoroastrianism. Avesta is the text of this religion. The people of Zoroastrianism region who migrated from Ancient Persia to India are now called as Parsees. Their temples are now called as Fire Temples. Mithra Religion is also said to be originated from Zoroastrianism.

African Civilization:

Mali Empire: Mali Empire is a West African empire, found in the 13th Century. Mansa Musa is the most popular king of Mali. Mali Empire is later changed into Songhai in 15th Century.

Kingdom of Kush: The Kingdom of Kush is an ancient African kingdom believed to be existed during the period, 1070 BC to 350 AD. The capital of the kingdom is Kerma, then Napata and later changed into Meroe. It is now located in the modern Sudan and surrounding places. Meroe is now called as Birmingham of Middle Africa. Egyptian and Kush civilizations shared similar culture. The people of Kush Dynasty formed the Meroitic script.

Nubia and Aksum Kingdoms emerged in AD 1st and 2nd century is other empires formed in Africa. Ge'ez is the written language of Kingdom of Aksum.

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