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PSC Class 21: Major Organizations in the World

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Major Organizations in the World:

Common Wealth:

1. Common Wealth is the only society other than United Nations Organisation, which has developed and developing nations around the world. Majority of the members were earlier colonies of Britain.
2. The headquarters of Common Wealth is Marlborough House of London.
3. British King/ Queen is the main leader of Common Wealth.
4. The meeting of leaders of Common Wealth government were conducting once between two years.
5. In 1931, at Westminster, in the name of ‘British Commonwealth of Nations’, the society is instituted.
6. Kamalesh Sharma, an Indian was the current secretary general of Commonwealth.

Non-Aligned Movement (NAM):

1. The decision of formation of NAM was made in the meeting held under the leadership of Indian Prime Minister - Jawaharlal Nehru, Egyptian President – Colonel Nasser and Yugoslavian president – Marshal Tito at Bandung of Java State of Indonesia in 1955.
2. NAM, which is the society of third world countries was formed in 1961, which is based on Panchsheel Principles.
3. The first meeting of NAM was held in Belgrade of Yugoslavia.
4. Africa Fund Committee formed in 1987 is the society related to NAM
5. The lastly joined countries of NAM is East Timor and St Vincent Grenadines.

SAARC (South Asian Association of Regional Co-operation):

1. SAARC is the society formed by seven countries of South Asia for improving the contribution towards Social – Cultural Sectors through inter related co-operation. Currently there are eight member nations (including Afghanistan).
2. SAARC was formed in the meeting held in the Bangladesh capital, Dhaka in December 1985.
3. The permanent headquarters of SAARC is located in Kathmandu of Nepal.
4. The member nations of SAARC were Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Pakistan, Nepal, Sri Lanka and Afghanistan.
5. Zia Ur Rehman (1979) is the bangladesh president who brought the idea ‘SAARC’ for first time.
6. The biggest regional joint nation society according to population is SAARC.

NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organisation):

1. NATO is the western nations alliance formed during cold war.
2. The organisation formed in 1949 April 4 in Washington has currently 28 member nations.
3. The headquaters of NATO is located in Belgium Capital, Brussels.
4. The Golden Jubilee of formation of NATO was celebrated in 1999.
5. The NATO army was appointed in Kabul (Afghanistan) for first time for the formation of peace after the Second World War.

European Union:

1. European Union were formed by almost all countries of Western Europe. European Union got its name  according to Maastricht Treaty of 1991.
2. Euro is the general currency of European Union.Euro came into existence in January 1, 1999, which started its exchange in 2002 January 1.
3. United Currency for member Nations, United Market, General Aboard Policy, General Agricultural – Fisheries Policy were the specialties of European Union.
4. The European Central Bank with its headquarters at Frankfurt of Germany has the power to release Euro.
5. The number of members in European Union is 27. The location of headquarters of society is Brussels of Belgium.
6. The lastly joined countries of European Union were Romania and Bulgaria and it was in 2007 January 1.
7. The member countries of European Union, which does not accepted Euro Currency were Britain, Sweden and Denmark.

Asean:

1. Through the declaration of Bangkok in 1967 August 8, the Socio – Economic Organisation of South Eastern Asia came into existence.
2. The head quarters of Asean, which has ten member nations is located at Indonesian Capital, Jakarta.
3. Apec is the economic alliance of Asean members.

OPEC (Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries):

1. OPEC is the society formed in 1960 for controlling the price and production of Crude Oil.
2. The headquarters of OPEC is located at Vienna of Austria.
3. Currently there are 12 member nations in OPEC – Algeria, Angola, Ecuador, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, UAE, Venezuela etc..
4. Indonesia is the country which withdrawn from OPEC in 2008.

Red Cross:

1. Red Cross is the society formed under the leadership of Henry Dunant in 1863 with the aim of helping the victims of war.
2. The head quarters of Society is located at Geneva.
3. March 8 is celebrated as World Red Cross Day every year.
4. The Geneva Convention for the victims of war prisoners came into existence under the influence of Red Cross.
5. India Red cross Society came into existence in 1920.
6. Due to pressure from Ottoman Empire in 1906, the name of Red cross is used by Muslim countries as Red Crescent.
7. The first peace Nobel prize of 1901 was for the establisher of Red Cross, Dunant.
8. Red Cross got Nobel prize for peace in the years 1917, 1944 and 1963.
9. The new symbol of Red Cross is Red Crystal.

INTERPOL:

1. The society INTERPOL, which formed in 1923 is for confirming the maximum co-operation among the countries against the criminal activities except Political – Army – Religion – Racial problems.
2. The headquarters of INTERPOL is located at Lyon of France.
3. It was CBI, who represents INTERPOL in India.

Amnesty International:

1. Amnesty International is the society formed by the British Advocate Peter Benenson in 1961.
2. The head quarters of Amnesty International is located at London.
3. The society got Nobel Prize for peace in 1977.

Scouts and Guides:

1. Scouts and Guides is the society established by Robert SS Baden Powell for youths in 1907.
2. Character Formation, Sincerity towards Nation, Social Service were the main aims of Society.
3. World Scouts Bureau is located at Geneva.
4. The slogan of Society is “Be Prepared”.
5. Guides Movement is the society formed for girls by Baden Powell and his sister Agnes in 1910.

ADB (Asian Development Bank):

1. The Economic development of Asian countries is the main aim of Asian Development Bank established in 1966 with the help of America and Japan.
2. The headquarters of ADB which gives money to member countries with conditions is located at Manila of Philippines.
3. ADB Asian Development Fund was started in 1974.

G – 8:

1. G – 8 is the society formed by eight wealthy countries of world.
2. It was during the summit at Denver in 1997, by including the Russia, G – 8 is formed.
3. America, Britain, France, Japan, Italy, Canada, Germany and Russia were the member countries of G – 8.

G – 77:

1. G – 77 is the society formed for protecting the Trade – Economic interests of Third World Poverty nations according to the advice from United Nations Organisation in 1964.
2. Currently there are 132 countries in Society, G – 77. India is also a member.

G – 15:

1. G – 15 is the economic society, formed by Under development countries in 1989.
2. G – 15 has 17 member nations including India.

African Union:

1. In 1963 May 25, a society called Organisation of African Unity is formed. It is named to African Union after the summit held in 2001 Durban.
2. The Society which has 54 member nations has its headquarters at Ethiopian capital Addis Ababa.


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