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PSC Class 38: India at a Glance

Posted by Arun Mohan ~ on ~ 0 comments

India at a Glance:

1. India is located at the Northern Hemisphere of Earth. The accurate location of India is at the north of the equator between 6° 44' and 35° 30' north latitude and 68° 7' and 97° 25' east longitude.

2. The total area of the country is 32, 87,263 square kilometers.

3. India contributes a total of 2.42 percent of the whole earth and is also the seventh largest country of the world.

4. Almost 16 % of whole population of the world belongs to India and is also the second largest country of population after china in the world.

5. The major line that passes through India is Tropic of Cancer and the states that the Tropic of Cancer passes is Gujarat, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, West Bengal, Tripura and Mizoram. The Indian GMT longitude (25.15°N 82.58°E) also passes through the state of Allahabad in Uttar Pradesh.

6. The Standard Time of India is 5.30 more than Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). The largest State is Rajasthan and the smallest is Goa. The state which has the largest population is Uttar Pradesh and the smallest population is in Sikkim.

7. Indian Population crossed the mark of 100 crores in 11th May 2000. The baby named “Aastha” born in Safdarjung Hospital is the 100 croreth baby.

8. The density of the country is 382 square kilometer. West Bengal is the highest density state in India. Bihar and Kerala is 2nd and 3rd in Density respectively.

9. The man : women ration of the country is 1000 : 943. Kerala has the highest Woman Population than Man. Whereas Haryana has the lowest women population than Man.

10. The literacy rate of the country is 73%.

National Symbols:

National Bird – Peacock (Pavo Cristatus)
National Animal – Tiger (Panthera Tigris)
National Fruit – Mango (Mangifera Indica)
National Flower – Lotus (Nielumbo Nucifera)
National Sports – Field Hockey
National Calendar – Saka Year
National Tree – Banyan (Ficus Benghalensis)
National Water Being – River Dolfin
National River – Ganga
National Fish – King Mackeral (Seer fish)
Official Language – Hindi

National Flag:

The three-coloured flag of India was approved by Constituent Assembly of India in 1947, July 22. The native of Andhra called Pingali Venkayya is the sculptor of Indian National Flag. At top – Safron, in middle – White and at bottom – Green is the colours of flag. The ratio of National Flag’s length and breath is 3:2. There is a 24 half lined Asoka Chakra in its centre in the white colour part.  Asoka Chakra is inspired from the Asoka Pillar of Sarnath in Uttar Pradesh. It is also called as ‘Dharmachakra’.

Khadi is the permitted cloth to make National Flag. The only approved Flag making center of India was in Hubli of Karnataka. The new Flag Code in India came into existence in 2002, January 26.

Official Languages:

The official language of India is Hindi. It was according to the 343 (1) section of Constitution, Hindi with Devanagari script is declared as official language of India. There is also a condition in this section that English can also be used as official language. The position of official language is said in the eighth table of 345th section of constitution.

Classical Languages:

Tamil is declared as classical language for first time by India Government and it was in 2004. Afterthat in 2005 – Sanskrit, 2008 – Kannada & Telugu and in 2013 – Malayalam is declared as classical languages.

Weather:

The climate of India is ‘Tropical wet Monsoon’. There are four important seasons in India. They were Winter – December to February, Summer – March to May, South West Monsoon – June to September and North East Monsoon – October & November

‘Mango Shower’ is the rain falling in Karnataka and Konkan Coastal areas in the second half of April Month. The name of this rain is so, since it helps for the rippening of Mango.
Loo is the dry summer wind that hits in some parts of states like Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Rajasthan and Punjab in Summer Season.

Kalbaishakhi or Norwester is the heavy rainfall with lightening and thunder, falling in the regions of Assam, Bihar and Bengal in Summer season.

Soils:

Generally the soils of India are classified into seven according to the color and different factors of soil. They are as follows.

1. Alluvial Soil: 24 percent of total soil of India contributes Alluvial Soil. The soil which is best for cultivation is mainly found in the river banks and coastal areas. Alluvial Soil is best suited for agriculture.

2. Black Soil: Black Soil is the second important soil of India. It is also called as ‘Black Cotton Soil’, since it is suited for Cotton Farming. It is also called as ‘Chernozem’ and ‘River Soil’. Black Soil is largely found in the states of Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and some parts of Tamil Nadu (in Deccan Plateau).

3. Red Soil: Red Soil is the thirdmost soil of India. The presence of Oxide of Iron in the soil gives it red colour. It is largely found in the areas of eastern parts of Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh

4. Laterite Soil: Laterite Soil is mainly formed through Monsoon season. The soil is most common in the states of Kerala, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa and Assam.

5. Peat Soil: It is soil formed by partly decomposed vegetable matter, usually mosses, mixed into soil to improve growing conditions. This soil is best suited for the growth of mangrove forests. It is commonly found in the coastal areas of Kerala, Orissa, Tamil Nadu, and West Bengal.

6. Mountain Soil: The bio decomposition soil type that helps for the growth of plants and trees. The soil is best suited for the cultivation of tea. It is found in some parts of Himalayas, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Assam, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Kerala.

7. Desert Soil: This soil is found in the North – West part of India. The soil has no water content and bio decomposition. This soil is mainly found in the states of Rajasthan, Gujarat, Punjab and Haryana.

Forests:

India is the tenth most country in the world having forests. India contributes 1.7 percent of total forests of world. 20.60 percent of total area of country is Forests.

Forests – at a Glance

1. The Forest area of India – 67.71 million hectares.
2. The percentage of total area of Forest is 20.60
3. India is in 10th position in World Forest Area.
4. Madhya Pradesh is the state having most Forest land.
5. Mizoram has most percentage of Forest land, when compared with total area of state.
6. The state which has most Mangrove Forests--- is West Bengal.
7. The state which has least forest land is Punjab
8. The union territory which has most land is Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
9. The biggest wildlife sanctuary is Great Indian Bustard wildlife sanctuary.
10. The first Biosphere Reserve is Niligiri.
11. Nagarjuna Sagar is the biggest Tiger Sanctuary.
12. Karnataka is the state having most Elephants.

Mangrove Forests:

The South 24 Pargana of West Bengal is famous for Mangrove Forests. Almost half of Mangrove Forests in India is here. About five percent of total Mangrove forests in world is in india. West Bengal is the state having most Mangrove forests. Gujarat is second.

Mountains:

Himalaya, Western Ghat, Aaravalli, Vindhya- Satpura, Eastern Ghats are the important mountain ranges of India. The biggest mountain line in the world, Himalayas is spread across the countries India, China, Bhutan, Nepal, Pakistan and Afghanistan. The length of Himalayan range is 2,400 km. Kashmir has 400 km length of Himalaya, whereas Arunachal Pradesh has 150 kilometer length.

Everest: Everest called as Sagarmatha in Nepal and Chomolungma in Tibet is located in Nepal. The highest peak of world, Mount Everest has a height of 8,848 meter. Earlier Everest has given the name ‘Peak-xv’ . It was in 1852, a surveyer from Bengal named Radhanath Sikdar identified ‘Peak-xv’ as world’s highest peak. In 1865, the then surveyer general of India, Andrew Voe had given the name ‘Everest’ for the peak. The name was given so in memory of Sir George Everest, who served as Surveyer General of India for a lengthy period.

The highest peak of India:

According to official data of Indian Government, the highest peak of the country is Godwin Austen or Mount K-2. The peak, which is located in Karakoram Mountain range is the second highest peak. Now this peak is under the control area of Pakistan - Kashmir. Its height is 8,611 meter. Locally the peak is also called in the names of Uyghur, Chhogori,Lamba Pahar and Dapsang.  


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