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PSC Class 9: Wars in the World

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1. Romans worshiped Mars as their war god.

2. The Alexander was one among the great Army leader of world history. He was born in Pella, which is the capital of Macedonian Empire in BC 356. Macedonian king, Philip II and queen, Epirus is his father and mother. The role model of Alexander from his childhood days is the greek fighter, Achilles. So wherever he goes, he accompany lliad along with him.

3. Alexander became a pupil of Aristotle in BC 343. Bucephalus is his favourite horse. Alexander became the ruler of Macedonia in his 20th age in BC 336.

4. Alexander started his journey of invasions from BC 334 onwards. He entered Egypt after defeating Persians. There he established a city of Alexandria in BC 331.

5. Alexander attacked India in BC 326. Alexander defeated Indian king, Porus in Hydaspes War. After his successful invasion of India, he returned to Babylonia. There he affected serious diseases. He died in his 32th Age in June 10 in BC 323.

6. Punic Wars were the three wars occurred between Rome and Carthage during BC 264 to BC 146.

7. Wars of the Roses were between Lancaster of England and York races.

8. Hundred Year War (between 1337 - 1453) is the war between France and England for 116 years.

9. Joan of Arc is the women who presented the most important victory for French in Hundred Year War. French Army under the leadership of Joan succeeded in giving freedom to Orleans city of France from English in 1429. After that the city got the name ‘Maid of Orleans’. In 1431, the English Army burned and murdered Joan.

10. American Civil War occurred between the periods 1861 to 1865. Abraham Lincoln was the American president at that period. The opinion difference on the matter of abolishment of slavery is the main reason that led to civil war.

11. The civil war started on 1861 April 12 and ended with the victory of Northern States in 1865. The Slavery was abolished in America with the 13th constitutional reformation that came into existence in 1865 December 6.

12. The Crimean War from 1853 to 1856 is considered as “First Modern War”. The war was fought between Russia and allied groups which includes Britain, France, Turkey and Sardinia. It is considered as most “Wasteful war of History”.

13. Florence Nightingale is the British women who became world famous by treating the injured soldiers in Crimean War. “Lady with the Lamp” is the nickname of Florence Nightingale. Nightingale is also considered as the “Mother of Modern Nurse”. The modern nursing is the advanced form of her written book “Notes on Nursing”.

14. Cold War is the war occurred on words and ideas instead of weapons. The war was between America and Soviet Union. The word “Cold War” was first used by Bernard Baruch, who was the then president of America at that time. The cold war ended with the split of Soviet Union.

15. The French Army of Napoleon failed in the “Battle of the Nations” occurred in 1813 in Leipzig of Germany. There Napoleon was captured in Paris in 1814. After that Napoleon was deported to Elba Islands in 1814.

16. Napoleon was finally defeated by Lord Wellington’s Army in the waterloo war of Belgium in 1815 June 18. After that he was deported to St.Helena Islands. There he died in 1821 May 5. Little Corporal, Man of Destiny, Child of French Revolution were the nicknames of Napoleon.

17. Easter War is the agitations occurred in Easter day of 1916 against British in Dublin of Ireland. The main aim of agitation is Irish Self Government.

18. The Thirty year’s war was in Germany between the periods 1618 to 1648. The war was between the believers of Catholics and Protestants.

19. The black wars during the periods 1839 – 1842 and 1856 to 1860 between Britain and China is the Opium War. The main reason for struggle is the opposition of china against Britain’s Black Market.

20. Boxer Rebellion was also occurred in china against foreigners in between 1899 to 1901.

21. Boer War is occurred in South Africa. The first Boer War was in 1880 – 81. The second was in between 1899 – 1902. The reason for war is that the efforts made by English to capture the plantations of Boer, who were the successors of Dutch.

22. The First World War was occurred during 1914 to 1918, fought between Triple Alliance and Triple Entente. Austria, Germany and Italy were the Triple Alliance and France, Britain and Russia were the Triple Entente.

23. The main sudden reason for First World War is the assassination of heir of Austrian throne, Archduke Francis Ferdinand and his wife, Sophie in Sarajevo (Bosnian Capital) in 1914 June 28.

24. The First World War ended with the signing of Germany in war retirement agreement in 1918 November.

25. The civil war occurred in Spain in 1936. The agitations were led under the General Franco’s leadership against Democratic Party which came to power. The Right sided societies and the Fascist society “Falange” supported General Franco’s movement. In 1939, the “Nationalists” took the power.

26. The “Spanish Civil War” was fought during 1939 to 1945 between Axis and Allied powers. Germany, Italy and Japan were the Axis Powers and Britain, France, Soviet Union and America were the Allied Powers.

27. The Second World War was started with the attack of Germany against Poland in 1939 September 1.

28. Polish Corridor is the small land connecting Poland with Baltic Sea. Danzig is the major city of this land. In 1939, Germans invaded this land.

29. The attack of Japan on Pearl Harbor in 1941 December 7 (which is the head quarters of American Army in Hawaii island of Pacific Ocean) is the reason for America to join world war.

30. Korean War is the first war where the army of United Nations Organization joined. The war started with the attack of North Korea on South Korea in 1950 June. 16 countries sent their army to South Korea for war. The war ended in 1953 July.

31. The Vietnam War was started in 1957. The effort made by Communist North Vietnam for the freedom of South Vietnam from American Allied Force led to the war. It is the lengthiest war contributed by Americans. The war ended in 1975.

32. Agent Orange is the herbicides used by America during Vietnam War.

33. Fascism: The term “Fascism” was formed from the latin word “Fascis”. The meaning of this word is Group. “Benito Mussolini” formed the “Fascist Party” in 1921 in Italy. The decisions of Fascists were against the Democracy, which were pointing on territorial nation. Fasces is the militant society formed by Mussolini to create terror among people. “Black Shirts” is the another force formed by Mussolini similar to Fasces. In 1922, Mussolini became the Prime Minister of Italy.

34. Nazism: Nazism, which is the another form of Fascism was arise in Germany. Nazists argued that Aryans were top among races and among them, Germans were great. In 1919, Hitler formed the Nazi Party, which has the short name “National Socialist German Workers Party”. The major work of Nazism was “Mein Kampf” which is the biography of Hitler. Brown Shirts were the public force formed by Nazists for slaying and striking the Jews and Nazis haters. Nazists considered War as the step towards development.

35. Six Day War was occurred in 1967 June between Israel on one side and Egypt, Syria, Jordan on other side. Yom Keeper war was between Egypt – Syrian armies and Israel in 1973.

36. Falkland War was between Argentina and Britain occurred in 1982 due to verbal war in the name of Falkland Islands of South Atlantic Ocean.

37. Operation Desert Storm is the militant movement made by America and allied forces in 1991 for the liberation of Kuwait from the control of Iraq.

38. Operation Desert Storm: Iraq’s attack on Kuwait was occurred in 1991. It was also in 1991, the Kuwait was liberated from Operation Desert Storm.

39. Painters and its creators: “Guernica” is the famous painting drawn by Picasso during Spanish Civil War. Leonardo da Vinci - Monalisa, The Last Supper, Vitruvian Man, The Baptism of Christ, Virgin of the Rocks. Michael Angelo – Statue of David, Final Judgment, Pieta, Moses. Raphael - Resurrection of Christ, School of Athens, St Michael, St George and the Dragon.

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