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1. Magadha is the first Empire of Ancient India. The major portions of Magadha belongs to current parts of Bihar State.

2. Mahapadma Nanda is the first emperor of Magadha Empire. Mahapadma Nanda's administration was in BC 4th century.

3. Sree Buddha Mahavira were contemporary to Magadha king, Bimbisaran.

4. The major ruler of Magadha, Ajatashatru was the son of Bimbisara. It was during the era of Ajatashatru, both Buddha and Mahavira retired their life.

5. It was in BC 326, Alexander emperor attacked India. Porus is the Indian king who was defeated by Alexander,

6. Ajatashatru is the king who established Pataliputra city. Pataliputra is the current Patna city.

7. Chandragupta Maurya is the establisher of Maurya Dynasty. Maurya Empire is established in BC 321.

8. ‘Chanakya’ is the minister of Chandragupta Maurya. The original name of Chanakya is Vishnugupta, who was also called as Kautlya. It was Chanakya, whose work is Arthashastra.

9. Megasthenes is the greek political thinker who visited Chandragupta Maurya’s Palace. The work of Megasthenes is ‘Indica’.

10. Bindusara is the next king after Chandragupta Maurya. Emperor Asoka was the son of Bindusara.

11. The empire of Asoka is the biggest till now in India. It is believed that the period of Asoka’s admiistration was fom BC 273 to 232.

12. Asoka attacked Kalinga country in BC 261. Asoka was the first ruler who made Buddhism as official religion of country. He is also called in the name ‘Devanampriya Priyadarshi’.

13. Kanishka is the main king of Kushana Dynasty. The king Kanishka is also called as ‘Second Asoka’.

14. It is believed that Kanishka’s administration was from AD 78 to 120. Saka Year calender war started in AD 78 by Kanishka. Saka year is the national calendar of India.

15. The era of gupta king is the golden period of India. It was Sri Gupta, who established Gupta Empire.

16. Chandragupta I is the first main king of Gupta Dynasty. It was Chandragupta I, who started Gupta year in AD 320.

17. Samudragupta is the most famed king of Gupta Dynasty. Harisena is the famous minister in the court of Samudragupta, who was named as Indian Napolean.

18. Chandragupta II was the Gupta king who accepted the position name ‘Vikramaditya’. It was in the court of Vikramaditya;s palace, the so called ‘Nine Gems’ is popular. The hero of Vikramaditya – Vetala stories was Vikramaditya Chandragupta II.

19. Harshavardhana is the last Hindu emperor of North India. The administration period of Harshavardhana was from AD 606 to 647. Harshavardhana was the king of Pushyabhuti Dynasty.

20. Krishnadevaraya is the expert, who was the empire of Vijayanagara. His administration was from 1509 to 1529.

21. ‘Slave Dynasty’ is the first Muslim dynasty of India. The Slave Dynasty was established by Qutb ud-Din Aibak in AD 1206.

22. Razia Sultana (1236 - 1240) is the only women who ruled the throne of Delhi.

23. ‘Muhammad Bin Tughluq’ is the ruler who is called as ‘cleverest fool’.

24. Mughal Dynasty was established by Babur in 1526. Akbar is the famous ruler of Mughal Dynasty.

25. Bahdur Shah II is the last Mughal King.
1. The year in which Alexander attacked India is BC 326.

2. It was between the forces of Alexander and Porus, who fought in the Hydaspes war in BC 326.

3. Hydaspes war is occurred in the Jhelum riverside.

4. It was the Arab leader, Muhammad Bin Qasim who attacked India in AD 712.

5. The year in which Asoka Empire made Kalinga war is BC 261.

6. First Tarain War is occured in AD 1191.

7. The first Tarain war was between the forces of Prithviraj Chauhan and Muhammad Ghori.

8. The war that lead to the Muslim rule in India is Second Tarain War.

9. The second tarain war in which Muhammad Ghori defeated Pritviraj Chauhan was in 1192.

10. Tarain, which is the venue where Tarain wars are held is now in Haryana.

11. Muhammad Ghori defeated the Rajaputra ruler “Jayachandran” in chandawar war in 1194.

12. The war in which Mughal Empire made a foundation in India is First Panipat war of 1526.

13. The forces of Babur and Ibrahim Lodhi fought each other in First Panipat war in 1526.

14. It was in the Khanwa war of 1527, Babur defeated the Rajputs and vanished them.

15. It was in the Gogra War of 1529, Babur defeated the Afghans of Bengal and Bihar.

16. It was in the Chausa war of 1539, Sher Shah Suri defeated the Mughal king, Humayun.

17. It was in the Kanauj war occurred in 1540 (Bilgram War), Shershah defeated Humayun for second time.

18. The war that became a reason for re-establishing the Mughal rule in India is Second Panipat war of 1556.

19. The army leader, who led the Afghan army against Akbar in second Panipat war is Hemu.

20. It was in the war of Haldighati war of 1576, the army of Akbar defeated the Rajputs of Mewar.

21. The leader of Mughal army who defeated Rana Pratap of Mewar in Haldighati war is Raja Man Singh of Amber.

22. The historical importance of Talikota War (Bannihatti War) in 1565 is end of Vijayanagara Empire.

23. The bahamni countries who fought against the joined army of Talikota war is Birar, Bidar, Ahmednagar, Bijapur and Golkonda.

24. The ruler of Vijayanagara in Talikota war is Rama Raya.

25. The leader of allied army of bahamni countries in Talikota war is Golkonda Sulthan, Ibrahim Qutab.

26. The Persian ruler who exported the Koh-i-Noor diamonds and Peacock Throne from India to Persia is Nader Shah.

27. It was in the Carnal War, occurred in 1739, both the army of Nader Shah and Mughal force fought.

28. The war that made foundation for British rule in India is Plassey War of 1757.

29. Plassey War was between British force of Robert Clive and force of Bengal Nawab Siraj Ud-Dhaula.

30. The war that disintegrated the Marata Empire is Third Panipat war of 1761.

31. The Marathas were defeated in the Third Panipat war against the Afghan force of Ahmed Shah Abdali.

32. The war that made British’s supremacy in India is Buxar war of 1764.

33. The carnatic war was between the English and French.

34. The carnatic war was occurred in the years “1746 - 1748”, “1749 - 1754”, ”1758 - 1763”.

35. Tipu Sultan was murdered in the Srirangapatna war of 1799 May 4 (Fourth Anglo Mysore War).

36. The war that ended according to Aix-La-Chapelle Treaty in 1748 is First Carnatic War.

37. The war that ended through Pondicherry Treaty is Second Carnatic War.

38. Third Carnatic war ended with Paris Treaty.

39. The Third Anglo-Mysore war ended in Srirangapatna Treaty (1792).
1. Alexander Cunningham is considered as the father of Indian Archaeology Science.

2. Indus valley culture got its name after the mention of Sir John Marshall.

3. Archaeological Survey of India was established in 1904.

4. Indian Archaeological Research Department was started by Lord Curzon.

5. The Indus valley region, which is believed to be devastated in the flood is Mohenjadaro.

6. The Indus valley region, which became famous due to its paths made from bricks, two floor construction built from bricks and clear sewage system is Mohenjadaro.

7. It was in the state of Gujarat, most of the Indus Valley centers of India were seen.

8. Pashupati is the man god devoted by Indus Civilians.

9. Mother Goddess is the women goddess devoted by Indus civilians.

10. Ox (Bull) is the animal devoted by Indus People.

11. The animal which is unknown to Indus people is horse.

12. Iron is the metal unknown to Indus People.

13. 16 is the number mostly used by Indus People.

14. Copper was first used by the inhabitors of Indus Valley in the world.

15. Aryans first inhabited in Punjab of India.

16. Fire is the first god mentioned in Rig Veda.

17. The biggest Buddhist sculpt of world is Lhasa of Tibet.

18. Tawang Buddha Sculpt is located in Arunachal Pradesh.

19. The most followers of Buddha religion were in China.

20. ‘Bamiyan’ which is famous for Buddha sculptures were in Afghanistan.

21. The King of Gouda, who cut the Bodhi tree of Bodhgaya is Shashankan.

22. Jataka Stories mentions the history and life of Buddha.

23. There are 500 stories in Jataka Tales.

24. The cave paintings of Ajanta – Ellora reflects the life history of Buddha (Jataka Tales).

25. The Ajanta – Ellora cave temples is famous for cave paintings, which is located in Aurangabad (Maharashtra).

26. Bimbisara is the Magadha king during Buddha’s period.

27. Ajatashatru is the Magadha king when Buddha lost his life.

28. Ardha Magadhi is the language spoken by Buddha to Common People.

29. Anandan is the favorite student of Buddha.

30. Jamali is the favorite student of of Vardhamana Mahavira.

31. Alexander attacked India in BC 326.

32. Cyrus II of Persia is the first foreign fighter to attack India.

33. It was Alexander and Porus in BC 326 fought in Hydaspes War.

34. Aristotle is the teacher of Alexander.

35. Bucephalus is the famous horse of Alexander.

36. Alexander is the king of Macedonia.

37. Alexander died in Babylonia in BC 323.

38. Alexander’s age is 33, when passed away.

39. Alexander's last words - “My physicians alone must carry my coffin.”, “Bury my body, do not build any monument, keep my hands outside so that the world knows the person who won the world had nothing in his hands when dying“.

40. The famous Royal dynasty who ruled Magadha during Alexander’s Indian attack is Nanda Raja Dynasty.

41. The famous Royal dynasty who rued Magadha before Maurya Dynasty is Nandaraja Dynasty.

42. The founder of Nandaraja Dynasty  is Mahapadma Nanda.

43. The Nanda King who ruled Magadha during the Alexander’s attack of india is Dhana Nanda.

44. Chandragupta Maurya defeated the Nanda king , Dhana Nanda and established the Maurya Dynasty.

45. Silver coins were released in large quantity for the first time in India, during the rule of Chandra Gupta Maurya.

46. The ruler who started the system of Kaneshumari in Ancient India is Chandra Gupta Maurya.

47. It was Bindusara, who came to power after Chandra Gupta Maurya.

48. The most famous Maurya King who was the son of Bindusara is Asoka.

49. The widespread of Buddha religion in India is happened during Asoka’s period.

50. The childrens of Asoka , who spread Buddha religion in Cylon is Sanghamitta (daughter) and Mahindran.

51. The national emblem of India ‘Symbol Lion’ is accepted from the Asoka sculpt founded by Asoka in Sarnath (UP).

52. The last Maurya king is Brihadratha.

53. The founder of Sunga Dynasty , who defeated the last Maurya king, Brihadratha is Pushyamitra Sunga.

54. The king who ruled North India with it’s capital outside India is Kanishka.

55. It was during the period of Kanishka, the Ayurveda experts Charaka and Sushruta is lived.

56. Ashvaghosha, Nagarjuna and Vasumitra were the famous Experts who ornamented the Kanishka’s court.

57. The Kushana King who motivated the most of Gandhara art form (Indo Greek Art form) is Kanishka.

58. Ashvaghosha is the writer of script “Buddhacarita”.

59. The writer of “Mahavibhasha”, which is called as Encyclopedia of Buddha religion is Vasumitra.

60. The king who fixed the image of Sri Buddha for first time in coins is Kanishka.

61. The official language of Gupta Empire is Garuda.

62. Prayag is the capital of Gupta Empire.

63. The Gupta King who ruled Empire with Ujjain as capital is Chandragupta II.

64. Kalidasa wrote the great poems, Raghuvamsa and Kumarasambhava.

65. Skandagupta is the last Gupta King.

66. It was during Gupta Period, the work and construction of cave paintings like Ajanta and Ellora were done.

67. The completion of works including Epics and Vedas in current form is happened in Gupta Period.

68. The reason for destruction of Gupta Empire is the attack of Hunas.

69. The Ayurveda experts lived in Gupta Period is Vagbhata and Dhanvantri.

70. The writer of Natya Shastra is Bharata Muni.

71. Buddha is Enlightened in Gaya of Bihar.

72. The Kurushetra in which Mahabharatha war is occurred was in Haryana.

73. The royal dynasty who released Gold coins in India for first time is Kushana Dynasty.
1. Megasthenes is the first foreign traveler in India. Megasthenes reached India as an ambassador of Greek ruler, Seleucus I. He arrived at the court of Chandra Gupta Maurya (BC 321 - 297). ‘Indica’ is the work of Megasthenes. Megasthenes mentions the Chandra Gupta’s society in Indica. It says that the society of Maurya is divided into seven sections. They were Philosophers, Farmers, Soldiers, Horse Riders, Handcrafters, Judges and Ministers.

2. Fa hien (AD 399 - 411) is the first Chinese traveler to reach India. Fa hien reached India in the period of Chandragupta II.

3. Huang Tsang, who was called as ‘Prince of Travelers’ reached India in AD 630 – 645. Harshavardhana is the major ruler of this period. It is believed that Huang Tsang influenced Harsha to Buddha religion.

4. Huang Tsang also visited the palaces of Chalukya King, Pulikesin II and pallava king, Narasimha Varma.

5. Huang Tsang is the foreign traveler, who became the acharya of Nalanda University, which is the ancient education center of India.

6. ‘Xiyu ji’ is the travel manual of Huang Tsang. Huang Tsang mentioned the people of India with words ‘Truthful even though Anger’.

7. I-tsing is the Chinese traveler, who visited India during the period, AD 671 – 695.

8. The Arab traveler, who visited India during the Muhammad Ghazni’s attack of India is Alberuni. ‘Tariq-E-Hind’ is the work of him.

9. Marco Polo is the Venetian traveler, who visited India in 1292 after his return from China. ‘The Travels’ is the work of him.

10. Ibn Battuta (1333 - 1347) is the Moroccan traveler who visited India during the period of Muhammad Bin Tughlaq. The journey manual ‘Rebla’ is the work of him.

11. The Italian traveler, who visited Vijayanagara Empire in 1420 – 1421 is Nicolo Conti.

12. The Portuguese traveler, who visited the Vijayanagara king, Krishnadevaraya’s court in 1520 – 1522 is Domingo Paes.

13. Abdul Razzaq is the Persian traveler who visited the palace of Zamorins of Kozhikode in 1443 – 1444. It was him, who mentioned Kozhikode as ‘most safe harbor’.

14. Friar Jordanas (1323) is the first foreign traveler who mentioned the Marumakkatayam System of Kerala.

15. Ma Huan is the Chinese traveler who visited Kerala in 1409.

16. Ralph Fitch is considered as the ‘Englishmen who showed the way’. William Hawkins visited the court of Jahangir in 1609 as an ambassador of British king.

17. The French traveler, who visited the Mughal Empire for six times during the periods of Shah Jahan and Aurangazeb is Jean Baptiste Tawarni.

18. Harold Macmillan is the first british prime minister to visit India.

19. Dwight Eisenhower is the first American president to visit India.

20. Pope Paul VI is the first pope to visit India. Pope John Paul II visited India for two times.

21. Jiang Zemin is the first Chinese president to visit India. 
1. The ‘Epigraphy’ is the study of Inscriptions. It was ‘James Princep’ in 1837, who deciphered the inscriptions of Emperor Asoka.

2. The language of Asoka Emperor’s inscriptions is Prakrit. Brahmi is the script used.

3. The first inscription of Asoka was about the abolishment of Animal Sacrifice.

4. Emperor Asoka is himself represented as ‘Devanam Priyadassi’ in inscriptions. Maski, Gujara were the writings which mentions the original name of Asoka.

5. It was sixth inscription, which said the words, ‘There is no other activity better than working for world welfare’.

6. ‘Junagarh Inscription’ was from Rudradaman of Ujjain. This inscription explains about the repairing the Sudarshana Lake. In this inscription, both the Chandragyupta Maurya and Asoka’s names were mentioned.

7. ‘Allahabad Pillar Inscription’ gives the information of Samudra Gupta, who is called as ‘Indian Napolean’. It is believed that this inscription was prepared by the court poet of Samudra Gupta, Harisena.

8. ‘Hathigumpha Inscription’ was written in the period of Kalinga king, Kharavela.

9. ‘Bhabru Inscription’ explains about the details of Upa Gupta’s influence in the conversion of Asoka to Buddha religion.

10. It was in ‘Maski Inscription’, the information about Asoka’s declaration that ‘all the people of his country were his children’.

11. ‘Mehrauli Inscription’ completed in Iron pillar has the information of Chandragupta II, who was also called as ‘Vikramaditya’. It is located alongside Qutab Minar in Delhi.

12. The ‘Aiholi Inscription’ of Karnataka was from Chalukya king, Pulikesin II. This inscription was prepared by the court poet of Pulikesi II, Ravikirthi.

13. Aihole Inscription consists of details of Harsha’s defeat by Pulikesi II.

14. ‘Uttaramerur Inscription’ gives the information of local self government of chola king, Parantaka Chola I.

15. It was in ‘Hanamkonda Inscription’, the mention of Kalidasa is included.
1. Rig Veda, Yajur Veda, Sama Veda and Atharva Veda were the four vedas. It was from Rig Veda, we get the information of arrival of Aryans and their lifestyle. Vedas wrote in Sanskrit language. Rig Veda is the oldest veda, whereas the largest veda is Atharva Veda.

2. Rigveda starts with the line ‘Agnimeele Purohitam’. The famous ‘Gayathri Mantra’ is said in Rig Veda. The starting line of Gayatri Mantra is ‘Om tat saviturvareniyam ’.

3. There are 1028 stotras in Rig Veda. It consists of 10 Mandalas. It was in the ‘Purusha Sukta’ of 10th mandala of Rig Veda, about the four races of India is mentioned.

4. Rig Veda is the first work written in Indo European language. Max Mullar translated Rig Veda to English. Vallathol translated Rig Veda to Malayalam.

5. Sama Veda is related to music. Yajur Veda is about the rituals and sacrifices of Aryans.

6. Atharva Veda is believed to be not the veda of Aryans. Ayurveda is the sub veda of Atharva Veda.

7. ‘War begins in the minds of men’ is the words of Atharva Veda.

8. The ‘Upanishads’ related with vedas is called as ‘Vedantam’. There are 108 Upanishads.

9. ‘Brihadaranyaka Upanishad is the biggest and ‘Ishavasyam’ is the smallest.

10. ‘Tatvamasi’ is the words from ‘Chandogya Upanishad’ and ‘Sathyameva Jayate’ is from ‘Mundaka Upanishad’.

11. Ramayana and Mahabharata were the epics of India. Ramayana is the most oldest epic, whereas Mahabharatha is the largest epic.

12. There are 18 parvas in Mahabharat, whereas Ramayana has 7 kandas. Valmiki is the author of Ramayana. Veda Vyasa is the author of Mahabharata.

13. ‘Jayasamhita’ and ‘Satasahasri Samhita’ were the other names of Mahabharata.

14. The famous ‘Aditya Hridayamantra’ was from Ramayana and ‘Bhagavat Gita’ was from Mahabharata.

15. Bhagavat Gita is called as the ‘Soul of Mahabharata’. Bhagavat Gita mentions the slogas from 25 to 45 of Bhishma Parva.

16. Mahabharata war was ended in 18th day.

17. Major Puranas – 18, Upapuranas – 18

18. Skanda Purana is the largest.

19. Satya Yuga, Treta Yuga, Dwapara Yuga and Kali Yuga were the four yugas based on Indian beliefs.

20. The lengthiest yuga is Satya Yuga. Kali Yuga is shortest.

21. Charles Wilkins translated Bhagavat Gita to English. The translation of Mahabharata in Malayalam was done by Kodungallur Kunjikuttan Thampuran.

22. There are 14 Manu. Vamana, Parashuram, Rama were the incarnations in Treta Yuga.

23. Balarama and Sree Krishna were the incarnations in Dwapara Yuga.

24. Mahabharata is called as ‘Fifth Veda’. The translation of Mahabharata to English was done by William John.

25. Dhanur Veda, Gandharva Veda, Shilpa Veda and Ayur Veda were called as Upa vedas.

26. The analysis debate (Nyaya) of Indians is ‘India Logic’. Gautama was its author.

27. The Vaisheshika (Atom’s character) which is also called as ‘Indian Atomism’ was the work of Kanadan. ‘Yoga Darshana’ was the work of Patanjali.

28. It was Bada rayana (Vyasa), who is considered as the author of Vedanta Darshan.

29. Gautama Padar, who was the teacher of Shankaracharya is the author of Advaita Vedanta Darshan. ‘Advaita Vedanta’ is considered as the ‘Complete of all Indian Philosophies’. Shankaracharya propagated the Advaita Philosophy.

30. Shankaracharya is considered as ‘Modern Buddha’. Padma Padar is the main student of Shankaracharya.

31. ‘Vishishtadvaita Siddhanda’ was from Ramanuja.

32. Brihaspati is the author of Charvaka Darshana, which said the lines ‘Eat, Drink, Enjoy’.
Indus Valley Civilization (BC 3000 – BC 1500):

Also known as Bronze Age Civilization extended from Northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan to India. It flourished from the river Indus and is one of the ancient civilizations of the world. It is also known in the name of Harappan Culture. It is believed that most of the cities of Indus Valley Civilization were abandoned and collapsed due to the invasion of Aryans from Indo-European tribe. Making Bricks is the main occupation of the people during that period. Pashupati (Shiva) and goddess are the chief devotional gods of the people. Sumerian People call them Meluhha. Wheat and Barly are the chief food materials. Lothal is the main occupational centre of Harappan people. They are unaware of both Iron and Horse. Ropar in Punjab is the first found Harappan city after Indian Independence.

Harappa: Harappa is the first found place that related to Indus Valley Civilization. It was founded by Daya Ram Sahni in 1921. It is now situated in the northeast Pakistan, about 24 kilometer west of Sahiwal in Punjab on the banks of river Ravi. Harappa is mentioned in Rig Veda in the name of Hariyuppia. It is the only place that we got the evidence of burial of dead body in Cemetery H Culture.

Mohenjo-Daro: Mohenjo-Daro is an archeological site known as the hill of dead people. It was founded by RD Banerji in 1922. It is now situated at the province of Sindh, Pakistan in Larkana District. Some of the objects found in excavations include assembly halls, a bronze statue dubbed the "Dancing Girl”, a seated stone sculpture "The Priest-King", the Shiva Pashupati seal and others.

Lothal: Lothal was founded by RS Rao in 1955. It is situated near Gulf of Khambhat in Gujarat. Some of the evidences found in Lothal include sheltered harbor, discovery of copper objects, beads and other semi-precious stones.

Kalibangan: Kalibangan stand for black bangles. A Ghosh founded the Kalibangan in 1953. He found that all houses in Kalibangan had their own well in that period. Also found evidences of furrowed land, camel bones and wooden furrow. It is located on the southern banks of the Ghaggar.

Dholavira: Dholavira was founded by RS Deekshith during the period of 1985-1990 and was the last city to get the evidences of Indus Valley Civilization. It is located near Rann of Kutch in Gujarat. Dholavira is flanked by two storm water channels.

VEDIC PERIOD (BC 1500 – AD 600):

The period of Aryans is known as Vedic Period. It is divided in two as Early Vedic period (BC 1500 to BC 1000) and the Later Vedic period (BC 1000 to AD 600). The meaning of word Aryan is warrior, knowledgeable and honorable. According to Aryans, Family (Kulam) is the smallest unit of Early Vedic Period. Father got the first place in family. One Wife and Women Dowry exists at that time. Child Marriage not allowed. Their main cultivation is Wheat and Barly.

Rig Veda: It is believed that Rig Veda was written in Early Vedic period. Aryans worshipped Water, Wind, Rain, Fire and Thunder- Lightning. They worshipped Indra as the chief lord who was considered as the protector of people. The main deities based on Rig Veda were Indra, Agni, Soma, Mitra–Varuna, Aryaman, Bhaga and Amsa, as Surya, Vayu, Prithivi.

Yajur Veda: It is believed that Yajur Veda was written between BC1400 - BC1000. Yajur Veda is divided into two as Krishna Yajur Veda (Black) and Shukla Yajur Veda (White).

Sama Veda: Sama Veda mainly given importance to Music. The texts taken from Rig Veda had given music.

Atharva Veda: Atharva Veda, a collection of spells and prayers, apostrophic charms and tentative hymns. In Veda Period, Agni is respected and the position of it is placed between the Human and God. Saraswati River that mentioned in Atharva Veda is now disappeared from Earth whereas Sindhu is the mostly mentioned river. Aryans first settled in Punjab in India. The famous quote of Dayananda Saraswati is “Return Back to Vedas”.

Buddhism

Buddhism: Hinayana and Mahayana are the major sections of Buddhism. Pagoda is the temple of Buddha Religion. The Eightfold Path, Ashtanga Marga is the base of Buddhism. Jataka Tales are the story about earlier lives of Buddha in both human and animal forms.
Gautama Buddha established the Buddhism. He is also known in the name of Siddhartha Gautama. He has born in the Lumbini forest (Kapilavastu) of Nepal in BC 563. He belongs to the Shakya clan, so he got the name of Shakyamuni. The first speech of Buddha was held at Deer Park in Sarnath (UP). Edwin Arnold, an English poet mentioned Buddha as Light of Asia. Magadhi Prakrit, is supposed to be the language spoken by the Buddha. The father of Buddha is Suddhodana and his mother is Maha Maya. He married in the age of 16 and his wife name is Yasodhara. The name of his son is Rahula and the name of his horse is Kanthaka. It is during the Fourth Buddhist Council, Buddhism is divided into two as Hinayana and Mahayana. The Triple Gem of Buddhism is Buddha, Dharma and Sangha. The houses of Buddhist monks are known in the name of viharas and their temples are called as Pagodas. Tripitaka is known as the holy book of Buddhism followers. Buddha died in Kushinagar (Uttar Pradesh) in BC 483. The death of Buddha is known in the name of Parinirvana. The incident that Buddha left his house and palace and had taken the sannyasa life is known as Mahaparithyaga. Gautama Buddha attained unsurpassed, supreme Enlightenment under Banyan tree in Bodh Gaya (Bihar).

Buddhist Councils:

No:
Year
Rulers
Location
Presided by
Buddhist Councils
1st
BC 483
Ajathashatru
Raja Graham
Mahakasyapa
2nd
BC 383
Kalashoka
Vaishali
Sabakami
3rd
BC 250
Asoka
Pataliputram
Mogaliputta Tissa
4th
AD 1st Century
Kanishka
Kashmir
Vasumitra


Buddha Principles (Noble Truths):

The four noble truths are:

1. Suffering (Dukkha)
2. Origin of suffering (Samudaya)
3. Cessation of suffering (Nirodha)
4. Path to the cessation of suffering (Magga), A set of principles called the Eightfold Path.
Eightfold Path: Right Understanding, Intention, Speech, Action, Livelihood, Effort, Mindfulness & Concentration.

Jainism:

Jainism also known as Jaina dharma spreads the message of non-violence towards all living beings. Vardhamana Mahavira is the founder of Jainism. Mahavira is born in Vaishali (Bihar) in BC 540. Rishabha is the first tirthankara of Jainism whereas Parshwanath is the twenty third tirthankara and the Vardhamana Mahavira is 24th tirthankara of Jainism. The meaning of tirthankara is a human being who aided in attaining freedom and clarification as an "Arihant" by demolishing their soul-constraining karmas and turn into a role-model and chief for those looking for holy guidance. The word Jina is derived from Sanskrit verb Jin (conquer) and its meaning is “those who wins his senses”. Mahavira attained intense meditation and Kevala Jnana (enlightenment) at the age of 42. Jamali is one among the chief followers of Mahavira. It was during the first Jain Council, Jainism is splitted into two as Svetambara and Digambara. Mahavira achieved nirvana after his death at the age of 72.The five self control principles of Jainism includes Ahimsa, Satya, Asteya, Brahmacharya and Aparigraha. The Triple Gems of Jainism is the right vision, knowledge and conduct. In Sanskrit it is Samyak Darshana, Gyana and Charitra.

Jain Councils:

No:
Year
Location
Jain Councils
1st
BC 310
Pataliputram
2nd
AD 453
Vallabhi

 MAURYAN EMPIRE (BC 321 – BC 185):

Chandragupta Maurya built the Maurya Empire in Iron Age, who ruled from BC 321 to BC 320. Pataliputra is the capital of Maurya Empire. Chandragupta Maurya Era is mentioned in the famous work of Megasthenes, “Indica”. Megasthenes is the greek ambassador in Maurya’s court. Kautilya is the prime minister of Chandragupta Maurya. The administration of Maurya was based on Arthashastra. Arthashastra written by Kautilya is translated into English by Syama Sastri. Chandragupta Maurya spent his last days in Shravana Belgola in Karnataka. The popular King of Maurya Empire, Asoka (BC 304– BC 232) was the son of Bindusara. Devanampriyan and Priyadasi Raja were the titles of Asoka. The meaning of Asoka is “Man with not Shoka”. Asoka’s war against Kalinga (modern Orissa) is happened in BC 261. Upon advice from a Buddhist monk Upagupta, Asoka followed Buddhism. Kalinga is now situated in Orissa. The third Buddhist Council is happened during the rule of Asoka. Asoka died in BC 232.

SUNGA EMPIRE (BC 187- BC 75): The Sunga Empire was established in BC 185, when the emperor Brihadratha who was the last ruler of Mauryan Empire killed by the then commander-in-chief of the Mauryan Empire, Pusyamitra Sunga. Devabhuti was the last Sunga emperor.

KANVA KINGDOM (BC 75 - BC 30): Vasudeva Kanva built the Kanva Kingdom. The last ruler of the Sunga dynasty, Devabhuti, was overthrown by Vasudeva Kanva of the Kanva dynasty in BC 75.

SATAVAHANA DYNASTY (BC 230 - BC 220): Simuka was the founder of Satavahana Dynasty. Satavahana people are also called as Andhra people. Gautamiputra Satakarni, Gautamiputra Yajnashree and Pulavami were the Satavahana kings.

KANISHKA: Kanishka was an emperor of the Kushan Dynasty. Kushan Empire was built by Kadphises – I. Peshawar (Purushpura) was the capital of Kushan Dynasty. Kanishka started the Shaka Varsha System in AD 78. Chaitram was the first month, whereas Phalguna was the last month. For the first time in India, Kushans brought the Gold coins to India. The fourth Buddhist Council was also said to be happened in Kanishka Period. Kanishka was the first ruler who prints the Buddhist Coins. Nagarjuna, Ashwaghosh, Vasumitra, Charaka and Sushruta were the buddhist patriarchs in Kanishka Empire.

SANGAM PERIOD (BC 300 – AD 300):

Tamil is the language used for writing Sangam literature. Murukan is the main deity worshipped during that period. Tholkappiam is the grammar book of Tamil language. Chera, Chola and Pandiya Kings ruled in Sangam Period. It is believed that Chola Culture is the oldest culture of South India. Uraiyur is the First capital of Cholas. It becomes so popular in Paruthi Occupation. Fish is the flag of Pandyas. The main harbor of Cholas is Kaveripoompattinam. Kaarai is the biggest tax collected in Sangam Period. The emblem of Chola is Tiger. Rajendra Chola is also known in the name of Gangaikonda Chola.  Brihadeeswarar temple in Thanjavur was built by Raja Raja Chola I. Cheran Chenguttuvan was the most popular King of Chera Dynasty. Nedum Chezhian was the famous Pandya Ruler. Avvaiyar is the most popular poet in Sangam Period.

Sangam Tamil Novels:

No:
Author
Novel
1
Ilango Adigal
Silappathikaram
2
Thiruvalluvar
Thirukural
3
Satanar
Manimekalai

Kingdoms - Capitals:

No:
Kingdom
Capital
1
Pandyan
Mathura
2
Chalukyas
Vatapi
3
Pallava
Kanchi
4
Chola
Thanjavur
5
Chandela
Khajuraho
6
Chera
Vanchi Muthur

 GUPTA EMPIRE (AD 320 – AD 550):

Sri Gupta (240 –280) established Gupta Empire. Ghatotkacha (280–319) ruled after Sri Gupta. Both of them had taken the degree of Maharaja. Fa-Hien called Gupta Empire as “the Soil of Brahmanas”. It is during the period of Kumara Gupta I, Nalanda University formed.

Chandragupta – 1: Chandragupta – 1 took the degree of Maharajadhiraj (King of Kings). Chandragupta – 1 started the Gupta year in AD 320. Mehrauli Pillar erected by Chandragupta II Vikramaditya.

Samudragupta: Allahabad Stone Pillar Inscription mentioned about Samudragupta. The famous poet in his Court, Harisena wrote the inscriptions in Stone Pillar. He is also known in the name of Samudragupta. The coin that was in distribution during the Samudragupta period contains the picture of him in the form of playing Veena.

Chandragupta - 2: Chandragupta - 2 is also known in the name of Vikramadithyan. The coin that was in distribution during his period contains the picture of a lion fighting against him. He is also known in the name of Devarajan. Gupta Period is considered as the Golden Age of India. Nine gems ( Navaratnas ) presence with a  circle of poets in Vikramaditya’s Court. It was during the period of Chandragupta – 2, popular Chinese traveler Fa Hien visited India.

 Nine Gems ( Navaratnas ) with their Works:
No:
Nine Gems
Position Held
1
Kalidasa
a Sanskrit poet and dramatist
2
Varahamihira
Scientist and Astrologer
3
Vetala Bhatta
Hindu philosopher
4
Amarasimha
Sanskrit Grammarian And Poet
5
Vararuchi
Sanskrit Grammarian And Poet
6
Kshapanaka
Astrologer
7
Dhanvantari
Physician
8
Vaitalika
Magician
9
Shanku
Architect

Notable works related to Gupta Dynasty:
No:
Author
Notable Works
1
Kalidasa
Shakuntalam, Malavikagnimitram, Vikramorvasiyam, Kumarasambhavam, Raghuvamsam, Meghaduta, Ritusamhara
2
Vishakhadatta
Mudrarakshasa, Devichandraguptam
3
Sudraka
Mrichakatika
4
Bharavi
Kiratarjuniya
5
Dandin
Kavyadarsha, Dasakumaracarita
6
Bhasan
Charudatta
7
Subandhu
Vasavadatta
8
Vishnu Sharma
Panchatantra
9
Amara Sinha
Amarakosha

HARSHAVARDHANA EMPIRE (AD 606 - AD 647):

Harsha was the main king of Pushyabhuti Kingdom. Thanesar in Haryana was the first capital of Kingdom. Later its capital is shifted to Kannauj. Harsha Vardhana is believed to be the last Hindu emperor of North India. Huan Tsang visited India during his period. Mahendravarman 1 in Central India and Pulakesi 2 in South India were the major other rulers during his period. Harsha had written several dramas. Some of them include Ratnavali, Priyadarshika and Nagananda. Banabhatta is the popular poet in his court. Harshacharita and Kadambari were the popular novels written by Banabhatta. Chalukya King Pulakesi 2 defeated Harsha Vardhana.

CHALUKYA DYNASTY (AD 543–AD 753): The earliest dynasty whose rule extended from major part of South India to Middle India. They are also known in the name of "Badami Chalukyas" whose capital is Vatapi. Pulikeshi II was the major king of this kingdom. Ravikirti is the famous court poet of Chalukya King, Pulakeshi. Dharmapala king of Pala Dynasty built the Vikramshila University.

RASHTRAKUTA DYNASTY (AD 753 – AD 982): Dantidurga builded the Rashtrakuta Empire. Manyakheta in Gulbarga district of Karnataka is the capital of Rashtrakuta. Amoghavarsha I was the most popular ruler of this empire. His notable work, Kavirajamarga is a milestone book in Kannada literature. He is also known as the Asoka of South India. Rashtrakuta king, Krishna I built the famous Kailashnath Temple in Ellora Caves.

ARAB ATTACK ON INDIA:

The first attack of Arabs on Sind is happened in AD 712. They reached Mekran, and then to the east of Sindh kingdom ruled by Dahir (AD 661– AD 712). The Arab army led by Muhammad bin Qasim (AD 695– AD 715) defeated Dahir and it was his first war.

Mahmud of Ghazni: Mahmud of Ghazni invaded India for 17 times between the periods of AD 1001 and AD 1027. Mahmud of Ghazni attacked Somnath Temple in Gujarat in AD 1025. The author of ‘Shahnameh’ Ferdowsi was the poet of Ghazni’s Kingdom.

Muhammad Ghori: The basement of Muslim empire in India was made by Muhammad Ghori.  Muhammad Ghori attacked India for first time in AD 1175. Multan is the place that he first invaded. In the first Tarain war, he was defeated by Rajput king, Prithviraj Chauhan in AD 1191. In the second Tarain war in 1192, Muhammad Ghori defeated Prithviraj Chauhan. The poet in the court of king Prithviraj III Chauhan is Chand Bardai. Chand Bardai wrote Prithviraj Raso.

SLAVE DYNASTY (AD 1206 – AD 1290):

It is also known in the name of Mamluk Sultanate (Delhi) or Ghulam Dynasty. The rulers of this dynasty are as follows.
01. Qutb-ud-din Aybak (1206–1210): The slave of Muhammad of Ghor, Qutb-ud-din Aybak is the first to establish a Muslim kingdom in India. Qutb-ud-din Aybak is also the first Muslim emperor of Slave Dynasty. The construction of Qutub Minar was also started by this king. He died accidentally on horseback by falling from the horse in the year 1210, while playing Polo in Lahore.
02. Aram Shah (1210–1211)
03. Iltutmish (1211–1236): His original Name is Shams-ud-din Iltutmish. He almost completed the construction of Qutub Minar. The Mongols leader, Genghis Khan invaded india during the period of Iltutmish.
04. Rukn-ud-din Feroz (April 1236 – November 1236)
05. Razia al-Din (1236–1240): Known in the name of Razia Sultana. She is the first and only Muslim women to rule Delhi. Persian is the official language used by the Delhi Sulthans.
06. Muiz-ud-din Bahram (1240 – May 15, 1242)
07. Ala-ud-din Masud (1242–1246)
08. Nasir-ud-din Mahmud (1246–1266)
09. Ghiyath-ud-din Balban (1266–1287): Commonly called as Balban. He broke up the 'Chahalgani' which is called as a group of forty nobles in court. He is the last strongest ruler of Slave Dynasty.
10. Muiz-ud-din Muhammad Qaiqabad. (1287–1290)

KHILJI DYNASTY (AD 1290 – AD 1320):

It was in the year AD 1290, Khilji dynasty started. Alauddin Khilji was the major ruler of Khilji Dynasty. He is the first ruler, who started market reforms and price control in India. Amír Khusru was the major poet in the court of Alauddin Khilji. For the first time, a marriage between Muslim prince and Hindu princess takes place between Alauddin Khilji and the widow of Gujarat king, Kamala Devi. Malik Kafur a slave was bought for 1000 Dinars became the general in Khilji army. Khilji attacked south india with the help of Malik Kafur. The Alai Darwaza, known as the fort of Khilji was built by Khilji. Control over nobility, Agrarian reforms are some of the his contributions. Mubarak Shah was the last king and Delhi is the capital of Khilji Dynasty.

TUGHLAQ DYNASTY (AD 1320 –AD 1414):

Ghiyas-ud-din Tughlaq built the Tughlaq Dynasty. Ghazi Malik was the original name of Ghiyas-ud-din Tughlaq. Muhammad bin Tughluq is the major king of Tughlaq Dynasty. His original name is Juna Khan. Muhammad bin Tughluq shifted the capital from Delhi to Devagiri and renamed it as Daulatabad (Maharashtra). Again he shifted the capital from Daulatabad to Devagiri. He is popularly called as the Wisest Fool Man. Firuz Shah Tughlaq was the first ruler who levied the religion tax “Jizya” on Hindus. He provided much contribution to Infrastructure and Establishment of Islamic Law. He also done many water irrigation projects for the development of Agriculture.

SAYYID DYNASTY (AD 1414 - AD 1451):

The Sayyid was the fourth dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate who ruled from AD 1414 to AD 1451. They succeeded the Tughlaq Dynasty. The rulers are Khizr Khan (1414–1421) and Alam Shah (1445–1451).

LODHI DYNASTY (AD 1451 - 1526):

Bahlul Khan Lodi (1451–1489) established the Lodhi Dynasty. Sikandar Lodhi (1489–1517) is the son of Bahlul Khan Lodhi (1489–1526) and father to Ibrahim Lodi (Youngest Son of Bahlul). Ibrahim Lodi is the last ruler of Lodhi Dynasty.

Sultan Dynasty of Delhi:

No:
Dynasty
Period
1
Slave Dynasty
1206 to 1290
2
Khilji Dynasty
1290 to 1320
3
Tughlaq Dynasty
1320 to 1414
4
Sayyid Dynasty
1414 to 1451
5
Lodhi Dynasty
1451 to 1526

 MUGHAL EMPIRE (AD 1526 – AD 1857):

BABUR (1526 AD –1530 AD): Babur established the Mughal Empire in 1526. His full name is Zahir-ud-din Muhammad Babur. The panipat war is between Babur and Ibrahim Lodi. The Babur wrote his memories in Turkic language in Baburnama. Tomb site of Babur is located in Kabul. Babur died in 1531. The basement of Mughal Empire in India was laid in Panipat War – 1 by defeating Ibrahim Lodi.

HUMAYUN (1508 AD –1556 AD): Original name is Nasir ud-din Muhammad Humayun. He is the elder son of Babur. Chausa War in 1539 is between Humayun and Sher Shah. Humayun died accidently, When he bow his knee in holy reverence, Kneeling, he caught his foot in his robe and falls over steps and hit on a rocky stone edge. He died three days after the fall. Humayun's Tomb is located in Delhi. Mir Sayyid Ali and Samad are the world famous painters lived in the era of Humayun.

AKBAR (1542 AD –1605 AD): Akbar is the son of Humayun. His Original name is Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar. He born at the Rajput Fortress of Umerkot in Sindh (Pakistan) in 1542 and became the ruler in the age of 14. Bairam Khan helped him to became a young emperor. Akbar defeated Hemu in the second Panipat war in 1556. He also defeated Maharana Pratap of Mewar in the Battle of Haldighati in 1576. Akbar built the city, Fatehpur Sikri (City Of Victory). He also built the Buland Darwaza and Ibadat Khana (House of Worship) in Fatehpur Sikri. He also found a new religion called, Din-e-Illahi in 1581.The revenue minister of Akbar, Raja Todar Mal initiated the Land Tax System. Akbar’s royal court also has Nine Jewels ( Navaratnas ). Abul Fazl who is one of the jewels of Akbar is written the book, Book of Akbar (Biography of Akbar). He removed the Jazia Tax fixed on Hindus. The Mansabdari System was introduced by Akbar. His Tombstone is located at Sikandra, Agra. Birbal, a renowned minister in Akbar's court is one among the Nine Jewels. Akbar was the ruler of India, while East India Company started.

JAHANGIR (1569 AD - 1627 AD): Jahangir is the son of Akbar. Nooruddin Muhammad Jahangir is his original name. He is also known in the name of Salim. He start his reign with a grand display of "Justice" for the purpose of smoothening the administration. Mehr-Un-Nisa is the wife of Jahangir. She is later known in the name of Nur Jahan. The meaning of Nur Jahan is “The Light of the World”. Jahangir is also a Painter. Sir Thomas Roe and William Hawkins are the major English Ambassadors of Jahangir’s Court. The Sikh Leader Guru Arjan Dev was assassinated by Jahangir. The memory inscriptions of Jahangir include Tuzuk-i-Jahangiri (Autobiography of Jahangir). The Shalimar Garden of Srinagar was built in Jahangir.

SHAH JAHAN: (1592 AD –1666 AD): Shahab ud-Din Mohammad Shah Jahan is the full name. He is also known in the name of Khurram. His reign has been called as the Golden Age of Mughals. The Moti Masjid, Red Fort and Jama Masjid were built by Shah Jahan. Shah Jahan is also known as the “Prince of Constructions”. The city “Shahjahanabad” was built by Shah Jahan. Alamgir is another name of him. The Shalimar garden of Lahore is built by Shah Jahan. Shalimar Bagh of Delhi is also built by him. He built one of the seven wonders of world, Taj Mahal in memory of his wife, Mumtaz.

AURANGZEB: (1618 AD - 1707 AD): Aurangzeb is the last emperor of Mughal Empire. The Sikh Guru, Tegh Bahadur was assassinated by Aurangzeb due to objection of forced conversion of religion.  Aurangzeb also became the Viceroy of the Deccan in 1636. He died in Daulatabad in 1707.
Bahadur Shah i: (1643 AD – 1712 AD), Jahandar Shah: (1661 AD – 1713 AD), Furrukhsiyar: (1685 AD – 1719 AD), Rafi Ul-Darjat: (1699 AD – 1719 AD), Rafi Ud-Daulat: (1696 AD – 1719 AD), Muhammad Shah: (1748 AD –1702 AD), Ahmad Shah Bahadur: (1725 AD –1775 AD), Alamgir ii: (1759 AD –1699 AD), Shah Jahan iii: (1754 AD – 1759 AD), Shah Alam ii: (1728 AD –1806 AD), Akbar Shah ii: (1760 AD –1837 AD). are the consecutive mughal rulers.

BAHADUR SHAH ZAFAR (1775 AD –1862 AD): Bahadur Shah Zafar is the last Mughal Ruler and he is also known in the name of Bahadur Shah II. British deported him to Rangoon (Burma) following his involvement in the Indian Rebellion of 1857.

Final Resting Place:
No:
King
Final Resting Place
1
Babur
Kabul
2
Humayun
Delhi
3
Akbar
Sikandra
4
Jahangir
Lahore
5
Shah Jahan
Agra
6
Aurangzeb
Daulatabad

VIJAYA NAGARA EMPIRE (AD 1336 – AD 1646):

Harihara I and his brother Bukka Raya I established the Vijaya Nagara Empire in 1336. Vidyaranya was their Guru. Krishna Deva Raya ruled the empire from 1509 AD to 1530 AD. Ashtadiggajas of Krishnadevara's court are famous eight scholar legends. Thenali Raman is one of them. The Portuguese traveler who visited Vijayanagaram in Krishnadevaraya period is Domingo Paes. Vijayanagara is located on the banks of river, Tungabhadra. The remnants of Vijayanagara are still located in Hampi of Karnataka. Krishnadevaraya has also a title, “Abhinava Bhoja”. Amuktamalyada is his notable work. Varaha is the gold coin in distribution during his period. In the Battle of Talikota between Vijayanagara and deccan sultanates, Vijayanagara defeated and it resulted in end of kingdom.

QUTB SHAHI DYNASTY (AD 1518– AD 1687):

Earlier, the name of Hyderabad city is Bhagyanagaram. Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah from Qutb Shahi dynasty founded the city Hyderabad and he also built Charminar in 1591 AD. They were Shia Muslims.

MARATHA EMPIRE (AD 1674 –AD 1818):

Shivaji established the Maratha Empire. Dadoji Kondadev tutored and mentored the Shivaji in younger days. He was born in Shivneri near Junnar City (Pune). Shahaji Bhosale was his father and Jijabai was his mother. Raigad was the capital of Maratha Empire. He got the title “Chatrapati” in 1674. Shivaji’s government included modern concepts called Ashtapradhan (cabinet of eight ministers). Sivaji died in 1680. Chauth and Sardeshmukhi are the taxes fixed by Maratha Empire. It was with the third Panipat war in 1764 January14, the Maratha Empire lost their power. In this war, Ahmad Shah Abdali defeated Maratha rulers. Their rule came to end with their defeat in the Second and Third Anglo-Maratha wars that extended from 1805 to 1818. After that British East India Company took control.

EUROPEANS IN INDIA (AD 1757 - AD 1947):

The British strengthen their base in India with the Battle of Plassey in 1759. Under the leadership of British Officer Robert Clive, British force defeated the Bengali Nawab, Siraj ud-Daulah. They built their first factory in India in Surat of Gujarat.

In the Buxar Battle in 1764 between British and Combined Muslim forces fought at Buxar, British got crucial victory. Under the Regulating Act of 1773 passed by British Parliament, East India Company’s rule came under Britain Parliament.

Portuguese is the first European force to come India and also was the last European force to withdraw from India. The European who entered India includes Portuguese, Dutch, British and the French.

The Nader Shah who known in the name of Persian Napoleon invaded Delhi in 1739 and he gained Koh-i-Noor diamonds and Peacock Throne from them.

British Parliament appointed Queen Victoria as the Empress of India in 1877 and it was declared by Benjamin Disraeli who is the then prime minster of Great Britain.

The Battle of Wandiwash in India (Vandavasi in Tamil Nadu) between English and French Army occurred in 1760. Tipu Sulthan is known in the name of ‘Tiger of Mysore’. Pitt's India Act passed in 1784. Satara (Maharashtra) is the first local kingdom in India took by British under Adoption Prohibition Law. St. George Fort in Britain is built in Chennai. Fort William in Kolkata was built in 1696 by the British East India Company.

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