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1. The biggest law making assembly of India is Parliament, which constitutes President, Lok Sabha, and Rajya Sabha.
2. The Parliamentary Set up of India is like British and it is located in New Delhi.
3. Edwin Lutens and Herbert Bakes are the architects who designed the model of Parliament. The stone laying for the inauguration of constructing parliament was made in 1921 February 12. The construction was completed in 1927 January 18 after 6 years.
4. The inauguration of parliament building was made by the then Indian Viceroy, Lord Irwin. The area of Parliament compound is about 6 Acres. There are 12 doors for entry into the parliament. The central hall is located in the middle of parliament mandir. It was in central hall, the transfer of british governance to Indians took place and was in 1947 August 15.
5. The area of Lok Sabha Hall in Parliament is 446 square meter. The seats in lok sabha are arranged in the manner of Horse Shed. There are around 550 seats for the members of Lok Sabha. The floor is covered with green color carpet in Lok Sabha. The members of  ruling party is seated in right side, whereas opposition party members is seated in left side of Lok Sabha.
6. Red colored carpet is covered in the floors of Rajya Sabha. There are around 250 seats for the members in Rajya Sabha. The seats in Rajya Sabha are arranged in the manner of Semi Circle.
7. The members of Rajya Sabha were elected directly by the people. The duration of each member of Lok Sabha is five years. The meeting in Lok Sabha is organized once between six months. Speaker is the chairperson of Lok Sabha.
8. President can arrange the joined meeting of both Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha.
9. Lok Sabha Speaker is the chairperson of joined meeting of both members of Lok Sabha and Parliament. The minimum age for becoming the member of Lok Sabha is 25. Only president has the power to dismiss the assembly of Lok Sabha. GV Mavlanger is the first Lok Sabha speaker of parliament.
10. Proterm Speaker is the chairperson of first meeting of newly elected Lok Sabha members. Normally the person having high age among the elected members is appointed as Pro-term Speaker.
11. President would appoint the Proterm Speaker.
12. Deputy Speaker is the assistant chairperson of Lok Sabha.
13. Anantha Shayanam Iyengar is the first Lok Sabha Deputy Speaker. Budgets were presented in Lok Sabha.
14. The total members of Lok Sabha can accommodate is 552. Currently there are 545 members in Lok Sabha.
15. President will nominate two Anglo Indians for each Lok Sabha Assembly.
16. Lok Sabha came into existence in 1952 April 17. The first meeting was conducted in 1952 May 13. Rajya Sabha is the continuous assembly of Parliament and it cannot be dismissed. Six years is the duration of each Rajya Sabha assembly.
17. The total members of Rajya Sabha are 250. Of these 250 members, 12 members were nominated by the president. It was in 1952 April 3, Rajya Sabha came into existence.

President of India:

1. President is considered as the first citizen of Nation. One has to complete his 35 years of age for becoming President. Five years is the period of President. President is considered as the national leader for all defense army including militant, navel and air force. Indian President is elected by the members of legislative assemblies of each state.

2. In case, a president lost his power, the next president should be elected within 6 months after losing Ex-president’s power. President should submit his resignation letter to vice president. Newly elected president should take his pledge (affidavit) in front of chief justice of Supreme Court. Rashtrapati Bhavan (President House) is the official residence of an Indian President. Mughal Garden is located inside the compound of Rashtrapati Bhavan. Edwin Lutens is the chief architect of Rashtrapati Bhavan. There are 340 rooms inside Rashtrapati Bhavan. Impeachment is the act involved for dismissing the power of President.

Presidents and their Importance:

1. Dr.S. Radhakrishnan is the only president who is considered as Philosopher. Dr Rajendra Prasad is the only president who became president consecutively for two times. Dr. Zakir Hussain is the first Muslim president of India. He is also the first president, who passed away while serving as President. Neelam Sanjeeva Reddy is the least aged president of India and he is also the only president who became Lok Sabha Speaker. Neelam Sanjeeva Reddy is the first president who won the election without any opposition.
2. R. Venkat Raman is the most aged President till now.
3. VV.Giri is the president who won the election for least difference of votes from runner up. He is also the first acting president of India. Pratibha Patil is the first women president of India.

Vice President:

The minimum age required for becoming Indian vice president is 35 years. The ruling period of vice president is 5 years. Vice president serves the duties of president on his absence. Vice president is elected by all the members of both Rajya Sabha and Lok Sabha. President is the chair person of Rajya Sabha. Newly elected vice president would take his pledge in front of president. There is no special act mentioned in Indian constitution for dismissing vice president.

Women in Lok Sabha:

1. Indira Gandhi is the Indian women who became prime minister for four times.
2. Sonia Gandhi is the first women opposition leader of Indian Parliament. She became the opposition leader for INC during 13th lok sabha assembly from 1999.
3. 49 womens elected as members during 13th lok sabha assembly (1999) and it is also the highest women contributed lok sabha assembly.
4. 19 womens elected during 6th lok sabha assembly (1977) and it is the least women contributed assembly.

Monthly Income (till 2012):

President – 1,50,000
Vice President – 1,25,000
Governor – 1,10,000
Supreme Court Chief Justice – 1,00,000
High Court Chief Justice – 90,000
Supreme Court Judge – 90,000
High Court Judge – 80,000

Final Resting Place:

Raj Ghat - Mahatma Gandhi
Chaitanya Bhumi - Ambedkar
Abay Ghat - Morarji Desai
Shaktistal - Indira Gandhi
Veer Bhumi - Rajiv Gandhi
Nigam Bodhghat - Kishan Kanth
Shantivan – Jawaharlal Nehru
Vijay Ghat – Lal Bahdur Shastri
Ekata Stal (Karma Bhumi) – KR.Narayan
Ekata Stal – Gyani Sail Singh
Kisan Ghat – Charan Singh
Samata Stal – Jag Jeevan Ram
Ekata Stal – Shankar Dayal Sharma

Presidents and their periods:

Dr Rajendra Prasad – 1950 – 1961
Dr S. Radhakrishnan – 1962 – 1967
Dr Zakir Hussain – 1967 – 1969
VV.Giri – 1969 – 1974
Fakruddin Ali Ahmed – 1974 – 1977
Neelam Sanjeev Reddy – 1977 – 1982
Gyani Sail Singh – 1982 – 1987
R. Venkita Raman – 1987 – 1992
Dr Shankar Dayal Sharma – 1992 – 1997
KR. Narayanan – 1997 – 2002
Dr. APJ. Abdul Kalam – 2002 – 2007
Pratiba Patil – 2007 – 2012
Pranab Mukherjee – 2012 – continuing

Vice Presidents and their Periods:

Dr S. Radhakrishnan – 1952 – 1967
Dr Zakir Hussain – 1962 – 1967
VV. Giri – 1967 – 1969
Gopal Swaroop Patak – 1969 – 1974
BD Jetty – 1974 – 1979
Justice Muhammad Hidayatulla – 1979 – 1984
R. Venkita Raman – 1984 – 1987
Dr. Shankar Dayal Sharma – 1987 – 1992
KR. Narayanan – 1992 – 1997
Krishnan Kanth – 1997 – 2002
Bairon Singh Shehavath – 2002 – 2007
Muhammad Hamid Ansari – 2007 – 2012

Acting Presidents:

VV.Giri – 3 May 1969 – 20 July 1969
Justice Muhammad Hidayatulla – 20 July 1969 – 24 August 1969 (only supreme court chief justice to handle this position)
BD.Jetty – 11 February 1977 – 25 July 1977

Period of Prime Ministers:

Jawaharlal Nehru – 1947 -1964
Gulzarilal Nanda (temporary) – 1964
Lal Bahadur Shastri – 1964 – 1966
Gulzarilal Nanda (temporary) – 1966
Indira Gandhi – 1966 – 1977
Morarji Desai – 1977 – 1979
Charan Singh – 1979 – 1980
Indira Gandhi – 1980 – 1984
Rajiv Gandhi – 1984 – 1989
VP Singh – 1989 – 1990
Chandra Sekhar – 1990 – 1991
PV.Narasimha Rao – 1991 – 1996
AB. Vajpayee – 1996
HD. Deva Gouda – 1996 – 1997
IK. Gujral – 1997 – 1998
AB. Vajpayee – 1998 – 2004
Dr. Manmohan Singh – 2004 – 2014
Narendra Modi – 2014 – continuing.

Lok Sabha Speaker:

1. Speaker is the chairperson of Lok Sabha Assembly.
2. Speaker is also the chairperson of all party organisations of parliament.
3. GMC. Balayogi is the lok sabha speaker who died on helicopter crash.
4.  Lok Sabha speaker will appoint the chairman of Parliamentary committee.
5. Mira Kumar is the first women lok sabha speaker.
6. Speaker and Deputy Speaker were elected by the lok sabha members.
7. Deputy speaker will handle the assembly matters in the absence of speaker.
8. Speaker would not lose hi position, whenever the assembly is dismissed. Speaker will continue his position till the next speaker is elected, after the first meeting of members of newly elected lok sabha assembly.
9. The position of speaker in assembly is an idea borrowed from British Politics.
10. Speaker will attest whether the bill presented in parliament is either money bill or not.

Electoral Commissioner:

1. The idea of Election for selecting members in Indian parliament is borrowed from british politics.
2. President will appoint the Electoral commissioner in India.
3. Electoral commissioner and his duties are mentioned in section 324 of Indian Constitution.
4. TN. Sheshan (born in Palakkad) is the keralite who became Indian Electoral Commissioner.
5. The official period of Electoral Commissioner is 6 years (age 65).
6. The official place of Indian Electoral commissioner is Nirvachan Sadan.
7. The act involved for dismissing Electoral Commissioner is Impeachment.
8. The only women who become Electoral commissioner of India is VS Ramadevi.
9. Central Electoral Commision came into existence in 1950 January 25.
10. January 25 is conducting as National Day.

Supreme Court of India:

1. Supreme Court is the highest justice court.
2. Warren Hestings is the governor general who worked for the progression of Supreme Court.
3. New Delhi is the place where Supreme Court is located.
4. Justice KG Balakrishnan is the first keralite to become the Supreme Court chief justice. He is the 37th chief justice of Supreme Court.
5. President will appoint the Supreme Court chief justice.
6. Supreme Court chief justice and judges would give their resignation letter to president. Also they would take their pledge in front of pledge infront of president during their appointment as judge or chief justice.
7. The age limit for Supreme Court judge to continue their service is 65.
8. Impeachment is the act involved for removing a Supreme Court judge from his position.
9. Justice V.Ramswamy is the first judge to face the impeachment act in Lok Sabha.
10. The sections from 124 to 147 in Indian Constitution mentions about the Supreme Court.
11. The civil cases on verbal fights for cashes above 20,000 would be handled by Supreme Court.
12. The sections 214 to 231 in Indian constitution mentions about High Court.
13. Guwahati High Court has the highest area to cover the cases in India. The court is handling cases from four states.
14. The cases from Andaman and Nicobar Islands were handled by Kolkata High Court.
15. The first Malayali Supreme Court Judge is P.Govinda Menon.
16. The family courts came into existence from 1986 onwards.
17. The first bar court of kerala was started in 2005 and it was in Kottarakara.
18. Currently there are 21 High courts in Kerala.
19. KT.Koshi is the first chief justice of Kerala High Court.
20. High Courts in India came into existence from 1862 onwards and it was in Kolkata, Mumbai and Chennai.
21. BL.Rao, Nagendra Singh, RS Pataka are the Indians who became judges in International Justice Rights Court.
22. Justice Fathima Beevi is the first women judge of Supreme Court.
23. Leela Seth is the first high court chief justice.
24. The first women judge of India is a Malayali and her name is Anna Chandi.
25. Sujatha P.Manohar is the first women chief justice of Kerala High Court.
26. KK. Usha is the first malayali women to become justice of kerala high court.
27. The green bench court is first started in Kolkata High Court. The court will handle only environmental cases.

Opposition Leaders of India:

1. The opposition leaders of Parliament have the rank as sane as that of central cabinet ministers.
2. A political party would become a recognized opposition party in lok sabha only if they get one by tenth seat from total seats in Lok Sabha.
3. The persons who became both opposition leader and prime minister of India were Rajiv Gandhi, AB Vajpayee and PV Narasimha Rao.
4. The first recognized opposition leader of lok sabha, Dr Ram Subag Singh is the member of Society congress. He became opposition leader in 1969.
5. SN.Misra is the first recognized opposition leader of Rajya Sabha (1969 – 1971).
6. AK.Gopalan is the opposition leader of first lok sabha assembly. At that time, the opposition leader was not official.
7. SM Stephen (1978 April 12 – 1979 July) is the first malayali to become opposition leader of lok sabha.
8. YB Chawan (Congress) became opposition leader for two times in sixth lok sabha assembly.
9. Jag Jeevan Ram is also the opposition leader of sixth lok sabha assembly. He is leader of Janata Party.
10. AB.Vajpayee is the leader of BJP for 10th and 11th lok sabha Assembly. Thereby became the opposition leader for both assemblies.
11. PV.Narasimha Rao is the opposition leader from congress in 11th lok sabha assembly.
12. Sarath Pawar (congress) is the opposition leader of 12th lok sabha assembly.
13. Sardar Vallabhai Patel is the first vice prime minister of India. The position of vice prime minister not belongs to constitution.
14. Estimate committee is the biggest committee of parliament.
15. The unbelievable report against central ministry should only be presented in lok sabha.
16. The member strength of lok sabha should continue as same as now till 2026.
17. The least member strength of legislative assembly of each Indian state is 60. The legislative assembly of Sikkim, Goa and Mizoram is less than 60.
18. The maximum member strength of legislative assembly of an Indian state is 500.
The final decision for cases related to election of Indian president and vice president should be taken by Supreme Court.

First Ministry of Independent India:

Prime Minister – Jawaharlal Nehru
Vice Prime Minister – Sardar Vallabhai Patel
Cabinet – Sardar Vallabhai Patel
Defence – Baldev Singh
Railway – Dr John Mattai
Finance – RK Shanmugham Chetty
Trade – Shyam Prasad Mukherjee
Law – BR. Ambedkar
Education – Maulana Abdul Kalam Azad
Health – Rajkumari Amrit Kaur
Labour – Jag Jeevan Ram
Agriculture, Food – Dr. Rajendra Prasad

First in India:

President – Dr Rajendra Prasad
Vice President – Dr S. Radhakrishnan
Prime Minister – Jawaharlal Nehru
Electoral Commissioner – Sukumar Sen
Controller and Auditor General – Narahari Rao
Lok Sabha Speaker – GV Mavlanger
Recognized Opposition leader of Lok Sabha – Dr. Ram Suhang Singh
Deputy Speaker of Rajya Sabha – SV.Krishna Moorthy Rao
Supreme Court chief justice – Harilal J. Kaniya

UPSC, Economic Commission:

1. Union Public Service commission otherwise called as UPSC is known as watchman of merit system.
2. The period of members of UPSC is 65 years (6 years).
3. The sections 280 and 281 of Indian constitution mentions about the Economic Commission.
4. President will appoint economic commission after an interval of each 5 years.
5. Present Economic commission is 13th and its period is from 2010 to 2015.
6. KC. Niyogi is the chairman of first Economic commission and it came into existence in 1951.
7. Vijay Kelkar is the chairman of 13th economic commission.
8. The main duty of economic commission is submitting report on sharing tax between central and state governments.
9. YV.Reddy is the chairman of 14th economic commission. He is the ex-governor of reserve bank of India.
1. The first law that mentioned the undivided India (ie, including India and Pakistan) as two nations is Indian Independence Act, 1947.

2. The President of India, when constitution was accepted is Dr. Rajendra Prasad.

3. The important constitutional section that declares the clear nature of ‘Indian Neutral to Religion’ is Preamble.

4. It was according to the 7th schedule, Union, State, Concurrent lists were included that divides the central – state government’s law development rules.

5. The act that considers the document line of constitution is the government of India act in 1935.

6. The chairman of Constitution Drafting committee is Dr.BR. Ambedkar.

7. During the constituent development period, the chairman of constituent assembly is Dr. Rajendra Prasad.

8. It was from Germany, the sections of Emergency in constitution are borrowed.

9. The 58th Amendment law of constitution mentions the period wise constitutional Amendments, which is modified. This modified English version is translated to hindi and was published by president.

10. It was in 1976, the 42nd constitutional Amendment was formed. In that Amendment, the word “socialist was added to preamble of constitution.

11. When the fundamental rights are disobeyed, one can go for Supreme Court according to Article 32. The Article 226 mentions to go for High Court on the matter on disobey of fundamental right.

12. There are 12 schedules in Indian Constitution.

13. The system of fundamental rights in India has similarities with Bill of Rights of American constitution.

14. The article that mentions the declaration of President Rule when the ruling setup of a state is failed is Article 356.

15. The case that supreme court declared that preamble is a part of constitution is Kesava Nanda Bharati Case.

16. The constitutional Amendment that made the defection abolition law is 52nd Amendment.

17. The commission that formed in 1983 for instructing whether there need any change in central state relation is sarkaria commission.

18. The law development right related to changing a state’s boundaries is included in Union list.

19. Jammu Kashmir is the only state in India, which has the right to develop a constitution of their own.

20. The law that instructs the federal set up in India before the constitution came into existence is Government of India Act in 1935.

21. Uttar Pradesh is the state which can sent more members to Rajya Sabha according to the forth schedule of constitution.

22. It was in 1989, the voting age of a citizen in India is reduced from age 21 to 18.

23. “Freedom to make wealth” is the freedom that was removed from fundamental freedoms.

24. The position according to article 14, which have reduction from “Equality infront of law” is president.

25. Not more than one, trial for single crime (Double Jeopardy) principle belongs to Article 20 of constitution.

26. Article 368 is the constitutional part that mentions the Amendment of fundamental rights.

27. It was during the declaration of President Rule, the power of writ for Supreme Court and high court is temporarily cancelled.

28. The power of Supreme Court’s writ is limited to disfollow fundamental rights.

29. The principle of writ power in Indian constitution is inspired from Pre-rogative writs, which is according to the law system of Britain.

30. It was from Ireland, the idea of Directive Principles is borrowed.

31. Article 44 instructs the conduction of unified civil code.

32. It was according to the Directive Principles, the decision of forming three tier  Panchayats in India is taken.

33. It was in Article 51A, fundamental duties are mentioned.

34. It was for Attorni General, who has the right to speak in two assemblies of Parliament, even though not a member.

35. If one was elected to both Parliament and Legislative Assembly at the same time and if he not resigned from any of from both positions, then he would lose the parliament membership.

36. Supreme Court is considered as court of Record.

37. Impeachment is the process involved in removing the judges from Supreme Court and high court.

38. Justice Ram Moorthy is the person, who faced the Impeachment process during the period, 1991 – 93. But the Impeachment report failed to remove his position.

39. Punjab and Haryana are the states which have a single High Court in general.

40. It was in High Court, Hang to death decision decided by District Session Court is checked and declared.

41. President only has the power to transfer a high court judge from one court to another.

42. Article 370 gave special position to Jammu and Kashmir.

43. Lieutenant Colonel is the substitute of President in central government ruling places.

44. Article 17 of constitution declares the abolishment of untouchable.

45. Right to Education Bill in 2008 is based on 86th constitutional Amendment. (Right to Primary Education)

46. The writ harji wanted for presenting a person who was illegally in custody (prison) is habeas corpus.
Constitution and Laws:

1. India has the biggest written constitution in the world. America has the smallest written constitution. Britain and Israel has no written constitution.
2. The Regulating Act of 1773 is the first law that was inspired from British Government in Indian Politics.
3. It was according to the Charter Act of 1883, the Governor General of Bengal was changed to Governor General of British India.
4. It was according to the Government of India Act in 1858, the position name “Governor General” is changed to “Viceroy”.
5. It was also according to the Government of India Act in 1858; India came under the rule of British Queen.
6. It was according to the Indian Councils Act in 1909; the entry of Indians to British Governor General’s Executive Council took place. These laws are considered as “Minto - Morley” rule modification.
7. The law that established the Di – Government system in provinces is, Government of India Act in 1919. (These laws are considered as “Montegu - Chemsford”, rule modification.)
8. Government of India Act in 1935 changed the Di – Government provinces to right of self government.
9. The plan that instructed the Indians to establish a self constitution is Wavell Plan (1945).
10. The law that passed by the British Parliament to transfer the Indian rule to Indians in August 15, 1947 is Indian Independence Act, 1947 (July 18).

Constituent Assembly of India:

1. The first meeting of Constituent Assembly was in 1946 December 9.
2. The president of first meeting of Constituent Assembly is Dr. Sachchidananda Sinha.
3. The permanent president elected by Constituent Assembly is Dr Rajendra Prasad.
4. Dr. BR. Ambedkar is the president of Indian constitution draft development council. (Drafting Committee)
5. It was the provincial assemblies through controlled voting that elected the members of Constituent Assembly.
6. The incident that leads to the formation of Indian Constituent Assembly is Cabinet Mission Plan in 1946 (March).
7. The British prime minister who sends the cabinet mission to India is Lord Attley.
8. B. Nagendra Rao is the person who served as advisor during the India Constitution Development Period.
9. As a Sovereign body of India, the meeting of Constituent Assembly was first conducted in 1947 August 14.
10. It was in 1949 November 26, the Constituent Assembly president signed in constitution. It was also during this day, the constitution was accepted.
11. Constitution came into existence in 1950 January 26 and this day is celebrated as Republic Day.
12. The two famous women members in Indian Constituent Assembly were Sarojini Naidu and Hansa Metha.
13. The famous congress party leaders as members in Indian Constituent Assembly were Jawaharlal Nehru, Sardar Vallabhai Patel, Rajendra Prasad, KM Munshi, C. Rajagopalachari, Abdul Kalam Azad.
14. The members of Indian Constituent Assembly, who were famous advocates, were TT. Krishnamachari, Alladi Krishnaswamy Iyer and Gopala Swamy Iyengar.
15. The preamble of Indian constitution was written by Jawaharlal Nehru.
16. Nehru called “Preamble” as the “Soul of Indian Constitution”.
17. Ambedkar called “Article 32” as the heart of Indian Constitution. (Right of Judgment from Constitution).
18. The preface of Indian constitution starts with the tagline “We, the people of India”.
19. According to the preface of constitution, the constitutional position of India is socialist neutral to religion democratic Republic.
20. When the Indian Constitution came into existence in 1950 January 26, Only the 395th section, 8th table and 22nd parts were included.

Fundamental Rights of India:

1. Constitution Promises six fundamental rights to citizens. They are Right to equality, Right to freedom, Right against exploitation, Right to freedom of Religion, Right to culture and Education, Right to establishing fundamental rights through court.
2. The part of constitution that mentions about fundamental rights is Part III.
3. The Sculptor of fundamental rights is Sardar Vallabhai Patel.
4. It was according to 44th Amendment of 1978, mention of right of wealth is removed from the table of fundamental rights.
5. According to the 86th constitutional amendment of 2002, Education is included in fundamental rights. It is mentioned in constitution as 21 A.
6. The part III of constitution, which includes fundamental rights is known in the name of Magna Carta of India,which is the base and soul of constitution.
7. The president has the right to abolish the fundamental rights of citizen. (during president rule)
8. The fundamental rights of 20th and 21st section, should be obeyed even it is president rule.
9. It was according to 15th section, division based on Religion, Ancestry, Caste and sex were removed.
10. The 16th section promises occasional equality.
11. The 17th section of constitution bans untouchability.
12. Right to Live is known as the basement of Part III. (21st section) of constitution.
13. Ambedkar mentioned 32nd constitution section as the soul and heart of constitution and also fundamental among fundamental rights.

Directive Principles and Fundamental Duties:

1. Forth part of constitution includes Directive Principles. (36 to 51st sections).
2. The idea of directive principle is inspired from Irish constitution.
3. In order to raise the country as a welfare state, Directive Principles are written.
4. According to 37th section, Directive Principles are Non justice able. That is, no court has the right to conduct it.
5. Some of the points included in the directive philosophy is same salary for men and women for same employment, to protect the teenagers and youths from discrimination and protect them from falling in bad habits, formation of grama panchayats (40th section), develop a uniform civil code (44th section) for all the country, wildlife protection and surrounding protection (48A section). These are included in Directive philosophy.
6. According to the 42nd constitutional Amendment of 1976, the new part (IV A), which has “Fundamental Duties” were included in constitution (Article 51A).
7. It was from earlier Soviet Union, the idea of fundamental duties was borrowed for Indian constitution.
8. To respect National Flag and Song, to give value and maintain our culture and ancestry etc were included in fundamental duties.
9. Currently there are 11 fundamental duties in constitution.

Constitutional Amendments of India:

1. Amendments were mentioned in the 368th section of constitution.
2. First constitutional Amendment (1951) rewritten the sections, 15, 19, 31, 85, 87, 174, 176, 341, 342, 372, and 376. Ninth table is also included in constitution.
3. According to 14th Amendment, earlier French colonies separated from India is named to Pondicherry and merged with India.
4. The 42th Amendment of 1976 is called as “Mini Constitution”. (According to this Amendment, the words neutral to religion and socialism were included to preface of constitution.)
5. The preface of Indian constitution is reformed for only one time.
6. It was during the period of Morarji Desai of Janata Party as Prime Minister in 1978, the right of wealth was removed from Fundamental Rights.
7. It was according to 52nd constitutional Amendment (1985), the defection removal law is sanctioned.
8. It was according to 61st constitutional Amendment in 1989, the voting age is changed to 21 from 18.
9. The 73rd constitutional Amendment (1993) is related to Panchayat Raj governing system.
10. It was according to 84th Amendment in 2000 November 1, 9, 15, the states – Chattisgarh, Uttarakhand and Jharkhand were consecutively come into existence.
11. Education is considered as fundamental right according to 86th Amendment in 2002.
12. A special commission is formed for scheduled tribes according to 89th Amendment in 2003.
13. It was according to the 92nd Amendment in 2003, Bodo, Dogri, Santhali and Maithali languages were added. (It was based on 100th Constitutional Amendment bill).
14. Currently 22 languages were accepted by Constitution.

Borrowed features of Indian Constitution:

1. Fundamental Rights, Supreme Court and preface were the ideas borrowed from American constitution...
2. Parliamentary Democracy (Election), Single citizen were the ideas borrowed from Britain.
3. The ideas borrowed from Canada are Federal system, Union state list.
4. The idea borrowed from Ireland is Directive Principles.
5. The idea borrowed from Australia is concurrent list.
6. The idea borrowed from South Africa is constitutional Amendment.
7. The idea borrowed from Germany is The Emergency (President Rule).

Writs of Indian Constitution:

1. It was according to 36th section of constitution, Supreme Court, High Court etc were released as writs.
2. The writ which has the meaning “You may have the body”, is Habeas Corpus.
3. Supreme courts and High courts only have the power to release Habeas Corpus.
4. The term “Habeas Corpus” means “the release of one who is in custody (prison) without any lawful reason”.
5. The writ which has the meaning “We command” is Mandamus.
6. The judicial writ issued by Supreme court/ High court as a command to an inferior court or ordering a person to perform a public or statutory duty is ‘Mandamus’.
7. Prohibition is the writ released when a lower court crosses its boundary and performs against the normal Judgment and Law.
8. The Writ released for transferring a case from lower court to higher court is Certiorari.
9. The writ to check whether one got an employment without any qualification is Quo Warranto.

Human Rights:

1. It was the “Magna Carta“ in 1215, which is considered as the primary human rights. The ruler who signed in Magna Carta is King John of England.
2. It was in 1948 December 10, United Nations accepted the all nations Human Rights Declaration. Afterwards, December 10 is celebrated as Human Rights Day.

Commissions in India:

1. It was in 1993 september 28, National Human Rights Commision came into existence. Ranganath Misra is the first chairman.
2. Justice KG. Balakrishna is the first keralite to join the National Human Rights Commission.
3. The chairman of National Human Rights Commission should be earlier held the position of chief justice in Supreme Court. Indian president would appoint the chairman.
4. Kerala State Human Rights Commision was came into existence in 1998 December 11. Justice MM. Pareed Pillay is the first chairman.
5. State Humans Rights commission chairman should be earlier held the position of High Court Chief Justice. Governor would appoint the chairman.
6. Information Rights Law came into existence in 2005 October 12.
7. National Women Commission came into existence in 1992 January 31. Jayanti Patnaik is the first chairperson.
8. State Women commission came into existence in 1996 March 14. Sugathakumari is the first Chair Person.
1. The first woman governor of India is Sarojini Naidu. Sucheta Kriplani (Uttar Pradesh) is the first woman chief minister. Shano Devi is the first woman legislative assembly speaker. Indira Gandhi is the first woman prime minister of India.

2. Fathima Beevi is the first woman judge of Supreme Court. Leela Seth is the first woman high court chief justice.

3. Sujata Manohar is the first woman chief justice of Kerala High Court.

4. KK Usha is the first malayalee woman chief justice of High Court.

5. Anna Chandi is the first woman high court judge of India. Omana Kunjamma is the first woman magistrate of India. Cornelia Sorabji is the first woman advocate of India.

6. Jyothi Venkitachalam is the first woman governor of Kerala. Ram Dulari Sinha is the second woman governor. Fathima Beevi is the first malayalee woman state governor.

7. Vijayalakshmi Pandit is the first woman minister of India. Rajkumari Amritkaur is the first woman central minister. KR Gowri Amma is the first woman minister of Kerala. Vijayalakshmi Pandit is the first woman leader of world.

8. Razia Sultana (1236 - 1240) is the first woman who succeeded to the throne of Delhi.

9. Arati Saha is the first indian woman who crossed (swim) the English channel.

10. VS Rama Devi is the first women election commisioner of India. Sushila Nayyar is the first woman deputy speaker.

11. Kamaljit Sandhu is the first indian woman who obtained Asiad Gold Medal. Karnam Malleswari is the first indian woman who got olympic medal.

12. Mira Kumar is the first woman speaker of Lok Sabha. Violet Alva is the first woman who became deputy chairman of Rajya Sabha.

13. Kiran Bedi is the first woman IPS in India. Anna Malhotra is the first woman IAS in India.

14. Vijayalakshmi Pandit is the first woman who was elected as president of UN General Assembly.

15. Mother Teresa is the first indian woman to receive Nobel Prize. Indira Gandhi is the first woman to receive Bharat Ratna.

16. Arundhati Roy is the first indian woman to receive Booker Prize.

17. Kalpana Chawla is the first indian racial woman who went to space. Sunitha Williams is the second woman.

18. Jhansi James is the first woman vice chancellor of a university in Kerala (Mahatma Gandhi University).

19. Reita Faria is the first indian lady to get the Miss World. Susmita Sen is the first indian lady to get Miss Universe.

20. Zeenath Aman (1970) is the first indian woman to become Miss Asia Pacific.

21. Pramila Esther Abraham (1947) is the first Miss India.

22. Padma Ramachandran is the first woman chief secretary of Kerala.

23. R Sreelekha is the first woman IPS officer of Kerala.

24. KO Aisha bai is the first woman legislative assembly deputy speaker of Kerala.

25. Nirupama Rao is the first woman foreign affairs person of India. She is also the first Indian woman to become Chinese ambassador.

26. Annie Besant is the first foreign woman to appear in the postal stamp of independent India.

27. Karnam Malleswari is the first woman to receive Khelratna Award.

28. Bethel College (Kolkata) is the first woman college of India.

29. Shreemati Nathibai Damodar Thackersey Indian Women University is the first women university and it was in Pune.

30. It was in New zealand, Right to Vote for women was first given. The parliament of Rwanda is the most women contributed.

31. The first Dada Saheb Phalke Award was received for a woman it is for Devika Rani Roerich (1969). Rubi Mayors is the second woman to receive Phalke Award.

32. Asha Poorna Devi (1976) is the first woman to receive the Jnanapeeta Award. Amrita Preetam is the second woman.

33. The first indian woman to receive ‘Ramon Magsaysay Award’ is Mother Teresa (1962).

34. Maria Estela Peron (Argentina) is the first woman president of a country in world.

35. Sirimavo Bandaranaike (Sri Lanka) is the first woman prime minister of a country in world.

36. Arati Pradhan is the first woman of world to swim across the Gibraltar Strait.

37. Mary Curie is the first woman to receive Nobel Prize.

38. Benazir Bhutto (Pakistan) is the first woman muslim prime minister.

39. Anausha Ansari is the first woman space tourister.

40. Margaret Thatcher is called as ‘Iron Woman’.

41. Nancy Pelosi is the first woman speaker of American Congress.

42. Chokila Iyer is the first woman foreign secretary of India. Nargis Dutt received the first best actress award of nation.

43. Amrita Preetam is the first woman to receive the kendra sahitya acadamy award.

44. Madame Bhikaji Cama is the first woman who raised the Indian Flag in Aboard.

45. Durgabai Deshmukh is the first woman member of Planning Commision of India.

46. It was Gandhiji, who give the name ‘Indian Cuckoo’ to Sarojini Naidu.

47. ‘Manikarnika’ is the original name of Jhansi Rani. Margaret Nobel is the original name of Swamy Vivekananda’s student, Sister Nivedita.

48. Madeleine Slade is the original name of Gandhiji’s student ‘Mirabehn’.

49. It was Mirabehn, who is called as ‘Indian Lady’.

50. Samios Elini is the original name of Sarala Ben, who was another student of Gandhiji.

51. The first woman captain of Indian National Army under the leadership of Subhash Chandra Bose is Lakshmi.

52. Captain Lakshmi contested against the APG Abdul Kalam in the election of Indian President in 2002.

53. The Indian woman who was selected as police advisor of United Nations Assembly is Kiran Bedi.

54. Koneru Humpy is the first indian women to get the Grant Master position in Chess.

55. The first woman to get the Nobel Prize is Bertha Suttner from Berthaon of Austria-Hungary (1905).

56. The swedish woman ‘Selma lagerlof’ is the first woman to get the Nobel Prize for literature.

57. Mother Teresa is the first asian woman to get Nobel Prize.

58. Wangari Maathai is the first African woman to get Nobel Prize.

1. It was Subash Chandra Bose, who mentioned Gandhiji as ‘Father of Nation’. Rabindranath Tagore called Gandhji as ‘Mahatma’.

2. Sree Buddha is called as ‘Light of Asia’. Edwin Arnold called so.

3. It was the popular minister of Chandragupta’s court, Vishnugupta who was popularly known in the names of Kautilya and Chanakya. He is called as ‘Indian Machiavelli’.

4. Gupta Emperor ‘Samudra Gupta’ is called as ‘Indian Napolean’. Vincent A Smith called so.

5. The Gupta king, Chandragupta II was popular in the names of Vikramaditya and Shakari.

6. Kushana king, ‘Kanishka’ was called as ‘Second Asoka’.

7. Amoghavarsha is called as ‘Asoka of South India’. It was Varaguna, who is called as ‘Asoka of Kerala’.

8. Emperor Asoka has the nickname ‘Constantine of Buddha Religion’.

9. Kalidasa is called as ‘Indian Shakespeare’.

10. Alauddin Khilji is the ruler, who was considered himself as ‘Second Alexander’.

11. The other name of Asoka is ‘Devanam Priyadarshi’. ‘Kaviraja’ is Samudra Gupta.

12. ‘Shiladityan’ is Harshavardhana. ‘Prachanna Buddha’ is Shankaracharya.

13. Amir Khusro is the poet called as ‘Father of Urdu Literature’.

14. It was for Urdu language, has the sayings ‘language of camps and army houses’ and ‘koh - i -noor of India’.

15. CF Andrews is called as ‘Dinabandhu’ and CR Das is called as ‘Desbandhu’.

16. It was Rajendra Chola, who was called as ‘Gangaikonda Cholan’. Thirukural is called as ‘Bible of Tamil’.

17. It was Firdausi, who was called as ‘Persian Homer’. It was the slave dynasty king, Qutab I bak, who was called as ‘Lakh Baksh’(giver of lakhs). Muhammad Bin Tughlaq is popularly called as ‘the cleverest fool’.

18. Krishnadevaraya of Vijayanagara Empire is called as ‘Abhinava Bhojan’. Swathi Thirunal is called as ‘Dakshin Bhojan’. He is also called as ‘Garbha Sreeman’.

19. The position name ‘Chatrapati’ was accepted by the Marata ruler, Shivaji.

20. Babur is called as ‘Adventurous Mughal King’. Akbar is called as ‘Uneducational Mughal King’. Shah Jahan is called as ‘Prince of Palaces’.

21. Raja Ram Mohan Roy is called as the ‘Father of Indian Renaissance’.

22. General Dalhousie is the british governor, who was called as ‘Sculptor of India’. Jawaharlal Nehru is called as ‘Modern Sculptor of India’.

23. It was Mahatma Gandhi, who called Subhash Chandra Bose as ‘Netaji’. It was also Gandhiji, who mentioned Rabindanath Tagore as ‘Gurudev’. Gandhiji reffered Subash Chandra Bose as ‘Prince of Patriots’.

24. It was Gopala Krishna Gokhule, who was called as ‘Political leader of Gandhiji’. CR Das was the political teacher of Subhash Chandra Bose.

25. Bal Gangadhar Tilak was called as ‘Father of Indian Unrest’. He is also called as ‘Lokmanya’.

26. Madam Bhikaji Cama is called as ‘Mother of Indian Revolution in Aboard’.

27. Sarojini Naidu is called as ‘Nightingale of India’. Aruna Asif Ali is ‘Heroine of Quit India Movement’.

28. EP Ramswamy Naicker was popular in the name of ‘Periyor’. S Satyamoorti is called as ‘Light carrier of South India’.

29. Dadabhai Navaroji is ‘Old Man of India’

30. Jawaharlal Nehru is called as ‘Chachaji’. Indhira Gandhi is called as ‘Priyadarshini’. Lal Bahdur Shastri is ‘Man of Peace’. Sardar Vallabhai Patel is ‘Iron Man of India’.

31. It was Sree Ramakrishna Paramahamsa, who is called as ‘Holyman of Dakshineswar’. Vinoba Bhave is ‘Monk of Pamnaur’.

32. C Rajagopalachari is called as the ‘Soulkeeper of Mahatma Gandhi’.

33. Khan Abdul Gaffer Khan is called as ‘Border Gandhi’. ‘Kerala Gandhi’ is K Kelappan. C Krishnan Nair is ‘Delhi Gandhi’.

34. Martin Luther King (Junior) is called as ‘American Gandhi’. Dr Rajendra Prasad is called as ‘Bihar Gandhi’. IK Kumaran Master is called as ‘Mayyazhi Gandhi’. Baba Amte is ‘Modern Gandhi’. AT Ariyaratne is ‘Sri Lankan Gandhi’.

35. Gopalakrishna Gokhule is called as ‘Socrates of Maharashtra’.

36. Aruna Asif Ali is ‘Heroine of Quit India Movement’.

37. AK Gopalan is ‘leader of Poors’.

38. Swamy Dayananda Saraswathi is mentioned as ‘Grandfather of Indian Nation’.
Jawaharlal Nehru:

1. Born in Allahabad in 1889 November 14. Motilal Nehru was his father. Swarup Rani was his Mother. Vijaya Lakshmi Pandit, Krishna Harkeerti Singh were brothers of Nehru.
2. ‘Anand Bhavan’ is the familyhouse of Nehru in Allahabad.
3. Nehru joined Haro Public School of England in 1905. After that, an owner’s degree was obtained from Cambridge Trinity College in 1907. He returned to India in 1912 after obtaining the law degree from london in 1910. Returned to India in 1912.
4. Married Kamala Kaul in 1916. The only daughter, Indira Priyadarshini was born in 1917.
5. It was in the Congress Annual Conference held in Lucknow in 1916, Nehru and Gandhiji met for first time. Due to attraction in the activities of Gandhiji, Nehru entered politics in 1921 and was arrested due to Khilafat agitation.
6. Nehru and his wife Kamala was arrested for their participation in Dandi March after the campaigns organised against salt law in 1930.
7. Nehru was in jail for almost nine years in the name of several offences in between 1921 to 1945.
8. The collection of postal letters written by Nehru to his daughter, Indira during his imprisonment is released as a book in the name ‘Glimpses of World History’.
9. ‘Glimpses of World History’ is translated in malayalam in the name ‘Orachan Makalkku Ayacha Kattukal’ by Ambadi Ikkavamma.
10. It was in the Lahore Congress Conference in 1929, the position of Congress president was transferred to Jawaharlal Nehru from Motilal Nehru.
11. ‘National Herald’ is the newspaper started by Nehru.
12. Nehru took the administration as first prime minister in 1947, when india became independent. It was Nehru, who served as Indian prime minister for most periods.
13. Nehru died in 1964 May 27, while serving as prime minister.
14. The final resting place of Nehru is ‘Shanti Vanam’.
15. Jawaharlal Nehru Award for International Understanding is the award given by Indian Government from 1965 onwards. Twenty Five lakh is the award amount.
16. U- Tant, who was the first asian UN Secretary General is the receiver of the Nehru Award for first time and it was in 1965.
17. Mother Teresa in 1969 is the first women to get this Nehru Award.

Rabindranath Tagore:

1. The first indian to receive Nobel Prize and also was the first Asian to receive this honor.
2. Born in Kolkata in 1861 May 7. Father is Maharishi Devendranath Tagore. Mother is Sarada Devi. Famous Bengali writer, Swarnakumari was the sister of Rabindranath Tagore.
3. Married Bhavatarani who has only 10 years old during his marriage in 1883. The name ‘Bhavatarani’ is later named to Mrinalini.
4. The first short story written by Tagore is ‘Bhikarini’. It was published in the family newspaper, ‘Bharati’ in 1877.
5. Chinnapatra, Samapti, Kabooliwala, Paila Nambar were the famous short stories of Tagore.
6. The first published poem of Tagore is ‘Abhilasha’, which is published in the paper ‘Tattwabodhini’ in 1874.
7. In 1880, Tagore wrote the play ‘Valmiki Pratibha’ and he also acted in that play.
8. He founded Shantiniketan in 1901.
9. The Tagore home is located in the Jorasanko of Kolkata.
10. In 1908, Shantiniketan became his permanent residence.
11. In order to sing a song in the congress conference in 1911, Tagore wrote the ‘Janaganamana’. Later it became National Anthem of India.
12. Tagore dropped the ‘Sir’ honour due to his anger against Jallianwalla Bag Massacre in 1919.
13. In 1913, the poem collection ‘Gitanjali’ got the Nobel Prize.
14. The Viswabharathi University was established in 1921 December 22. In 1951, Viswabharathi was approved as central university.
15. Rabindranath Tagore died in 1941 August 7.

Subhash Chandra Bose:

1. Born in Cuttack of Orissa in 1897 January 23. Father is Janakinath Bose and Mother is Prabhavati.
2. Arrested in the name of activities against government in 1921.
3. Elected as Kolkata Mayor, while in Prison in 1931.
4. Elected as Congress President in the Haripura Congress Conference in 1938.
5. In 1937, marriage with an austrian lady, Emilie Schenkl.
6. Subhash Chandra Bose once again became congress president defeating Pattabhi Sitaramayya, who contested with Gandhiji’s ideologies in 1939.
7. The party ‘Forward Bloc’ was established in 1939.
8. A No Food Agitation was held while in prison in 1940 November. Bose was house jailed due to his health problem in prison. In 1941 January 7, Bose was disappeared from house jail.
9. He entered Germany in the name of ‘Orlando Mazzotta’. It was in this place, militant activities are started.
10. Indian Independence League is formed in Bangkok in 1942 September 1.
11. The women armal section ‘Rani of Jhansi’ was formed by Bose by taking the leadership of Indian National Army from Rash Behari Bose.
12. In 1944, the INA Capital was shifted to Rangoon.
13. In 1945 May, INA Commander Shanavas Khan and group were surrendered.
14. The Indian Struggle, An Indian Pilgrim, The Alternative leadership, Letters to Emilie Schenkl was the famous works of Bose. ‘An Indian Pilgrim’ is the incomplete autobiography of Netaji.
15. The one member commission formed in 2004 for enquiring the missing of Netaji is Mukherjee Commision.
16. Tagore mentioned Subhash Chandra Bose as ‘Desh Nayak’.
17. CR Das is the political guru of Subhash Chandra Bose.
18. Gandhiji mentioned Subhash Chandra Bose as ‘Patriot of Patriots’.

Raja Ram Mohan Roy:

1. The Renaissance leader of Modern India.
2. Raja Ram Mohan Roy was born as second son of Ramakanta Roy and Tarini Devi from Radha Nagar of Bengal in 1772 May 22.
3. In 1802, became an officer in East India Company.
4. He resigned his job in 1815.
5. Under the leadership of Uttarayan Association, Anglo Hindu School was started in 1822.
6. Vedanta College was started in 1825.
7. Brahma Samaj was founded in 1828. For the campaign of Brahma Samaj, ‘Tattva Kaumudi’ weekly was started.
8. A report on abolishment of ‘Sati’ was released in 1829 November 26. It was Lord William Bentic, who released the order of Abolishment of Sati after the activities of Raja Ram Mohan Roy against Sati.
9. It was under the leadership of Raja Ram Mohan Roy, the first missionary school of India was founded. It was in 1830 July 13.
10. In 1830, he went to England. He was the first indian to visit England.

Swamy Vivekananda:

1. Born in Kolkata in 1863 January 12. The earlier name is Narendranath Dutta. Father is Viswanath Dutta. Mother is Bhuvaneswari.
2. The spiritual teacher of Vivekananda is Sree Ramakrishna Paramahamsa. Became the leader for spreading the advices of Guru after the Sree Ramakrishna Paramahamsa’s retire of life in 1886. Sree Ramakrishna Mission was founded in 1897.
3. Sarath Chandra Gupta is the first student of Vivekananda.
4. Margaret E Noble is the british women who attracted towards the speechs of Vivekananda. Later she became the student of Swamy in the name of Sister Nivedita.
5. In 1892, he reached Kanyakumari from Thiruvananthapuram through the way of Rameswaram.
6. Participated in the Chicago World All Religion Conference in 1893 September and made his speech.
7. Vedanta Society of New York was founded in 1894.
8. First England tour in 1895.
9. Second western tour in 1899.
10. Swamy Vivekananda retired his life in July  4 in 1902.
11. The birth day of Vivekananda, January 12 is celebrating as ‘National Youth Day’.

Dr Bhimrao Ambedkar:

1. The everlasting leader of officers of India. The first law minister of Independent India. The great person who got a place in history of chairman position in Constituent Assembly. His nick name is ‘Modern Manu’.
2. Born in a place in Madhya Pradesh, which is now called as Mhow in 1891 April 14. The birth of Ambedkar was in the Mahar section, which is now believed as officers group. Father is Ramji Sakpal and mother is Bhimabhai.
3. Passed BA from EL finstein College in 1912. Job in Baroda State Service in 1913. After that, went to aboard for higher studies.
4. Passed MA from Colombia University in 1915. Obtained Ph D in 1916.
5. Became the military secretary of Baroda king just after returned to India. The job was designed by Ambedkar due to the prevailing caste society and went to Bombay.
6. The national conferences were summoned in 1925 April 10 and April 11.
7. Inorder to aware the needs of officers to their main officers, Ambedkar started the publication ‘Mookanayak’ in Marati Language. ‘Bahishkrit Bharat’ is the di-weekly started by Ambedkar.
8. The All India Conference of officer sections was met in 1930 August. Ambedkar was its president.
9. Inorder to participate in Round Table Conference in 1930, Ambedkar went to London. Ambedkar is the Indian leader who participated in the three Round Table Conferences.
10. Independent Labour Party is formed in 1936. People’s Education Society was formed in 1946.
11. In July 1942, became the labour member of Executive council of Viceroy.
12. 1947 August 15 – Indian Law Minister.
13. 1947 August 29 – Chairman of Constituent Assembly.
14. 1957 – Resigned from Cabinet.
15. It was from Bombay State, Ambedkar was elected to Constituent Assembly.
16. 1952 – Rajya Sabha Member
17. Died in Delhi in 1956 December 4.
18. ‘Chaitanya Bhumi’ is the final resting place of Ambedkar. It was in Mumbai.

Sardar Vallabhai Patel:

1. The strengthiest leader who contributed a major role in the unification of Indian local countries. He is called as ‘The Iron Man of India’. Sardar Vallabhai Patel is also the first cabinet minister and first vice prime minister of Independent India.
2. He was born in Nadiad of Gujarat in 1875 October 31. Father is Javer Bhai and Mother is Lad Bhai.
3. Passed High School in 1896. The law exam was passed by hearing the debates in court, since there is no way for him to join the law college. He started practicing classes in Godhra.
4. Patel passed the Barister Atlo Exam in England. Returned to India in 1913.
5. Elected as Sanitation Commisioner in Ahmedabad in 1917. Attracted in the activities of Gandhiji.
6. Became popular in the national level after his contribution in struggles against the over tax collection in Kheda of Gujarat in 1918.
7. Became Ahmedabad Muncipal President in 1922, 1924 and 1927.
8. Led the Bardoli Sathyagraha in 1928.
9. An arrest for the participation in civil law disobedience movement in 1930.
10. Elected as Congress president in the Karachi Congress Conference in 1931.
11. Patel and Gandhiji was imprisoned in Yervada jail in 1932 after the failure of Second Round Table Conference.
12. Jailed for second time after the Quit India Movement.
13. Firstly, became the Vice Prime Minister in Nehru Cabinet and after that became the Cabinet Minister, Information and Broadcasting Minister. The duty of Ministry of States was also handled by Patel.
14. Died after a heart attack in 1950 December 15.
15. Nation gave the Bharat Ratna honour to Sardar Vallabhai Patel in 1991.
16. It was Gandhiji, who gave the position name ‘Sardar’ to Vallabhai Patel.

Sarojini Naidu:

1. The brave freedom fighter who is called as the ‘The Nightingale of India’ is Sarojini Naidu. The first Indian women to become the president of Indian National Congress. The first women to handle the position of State Governor.
2. Born in Hyderabad in 1879 February 13. Father is Aghornath Chattopadhyaya, who was the scientist and scholar. Mother is the famous Bengal poet, Bharata Sundari Devi.
3. Passed Matriculation from Madras University.
4. Went to England in the Age 16. Studied in Kings College of London and Girton College of Cambridge.
5. Published ‘The Golden Threshold’ in 1905, ‘The Bird of Time’ in 1912 and ‘The Broken Wing’.
6. Married Govindaraj Naidu after two years of her first meet in the Age 15.
7. Joined National Movement related with Bengal Partition in 1905.
8. Sarojini Naidu is the president of Kanpur Congress Conference in 1925.
9. Became the ever freedom Governor of Uttar Pradesh in 1947.
10. Sarojini Naidu died in 1949 March 2.

Indira Gandhi:

1. The first women prime minister of India. The daughter of first prime minister, Jawaharlal Nehru and Kamala Nehru. She is called as ‘The Iron Woman of India’.
2. Born in Allahabad in 1917 November 19.
3. Marriage with Feroz Gandhi in 1942.
4. Worked as a supporter in cabinet of Jawaharlal Nehru between the years from 1947 to 1965.
5. Became the Indian National Congress president in 1964.
6. Information and Broadcasting Minister in the Lal Bahdur Shastri Cabinet in 1964.
7. Became Prime Minister in 1966 after the death of Lal Bahdur Shastri.
8. Through the Land Reformation actions and Bank Nationalization, got a place in history through her administration. It was in 1969, first phase of Bank Nationalization actions were started. It was in 1969, Privy Purse was stopped and the Second phase of Bank Nationalization in 1980.
9. Indira Gandhi raised the famous slogan ‘Gareebi Hattao’ related to General Election in 1971.
10. India won in Indo-Pak war of 1971.
11. Allahabad High Court banned the election of 1971 and that order was released in 1975 June. The constituency in which Indira won in 1971 Election is Raebareli of Uttar Pradesh.
12. Got Bharat Ratna in 1971.
13. Declared President Rule in 1975 June 26. The President Rule became a black episode in the history of Freedom India. The country was under the President until 1977 March 21.
14. Indira Congress lost the next general election. The joint party cabinet called Janata Morcha came into existence. Morarji Desai became Prime Minister.
15. Became Prime Minister for second time in 1980.
16. The armal move was held in Golden Temple searching Sikh terrorists in 1984. This move is called as ‘Operation Bluestar’.
17. Indira Gandhi died after the firing from her own Sikh security soldiers in 1984 October 31.

Swamy Dayananda Saraswati:

1. Founder of Arya Samaj. The vedanta scholar, who contributed a major role in Renaissance. The nickname is ‘Calvin of Hindu Religion’.
2. Born in Tangara of Gujarat in 1824. His earlier monastry name is Moola Shankar.
3. Accepted Swami Virjanand Saraswati as teacher in Mathura in 1860. He gave the name Dayananda to Moola Shankar.
4. Made theories against the Child Marriage, Idol Worship and Case System by travelling around India. Made awareness by finding the wants of unification between the Vedic Science and Technical Science.
5. Established Arya Samaj in 1875. Arya Samaj is the service society for obtaining equal justice for all.
6. Reached Palace by accepting the visit of Jodhpur King during the Deepavali celebrations in 1883. Tried to aware the king about the need of leading a loyal life. In that night, Swamy Dayananda Saraswati was put to death by food poison by the enemies of palace.
7. ‘Satyarth Prakash’ was the famous work o Swami Dayananda Saraswati.

Vikram Sarabhai:

1. He is called as father of Indian Space Project.
2. Born in Ahmedabad in 1919 August 12. Full Name is Vikram Ambalal Sarabhai.
3. Degree from St.John’s College in 1940. After that, research under the Sir CV Raman in Indian Institute of Science.
4. Ph D from Cambridge in 1947. Leadership for establishing the physical research lab in Ahmedabad. Engaged in the research about the cosmic rays and related processes.
5. Chairman of Indian National Committee for Space Research in 1957.
6. Became the Chairman of Atomic Energy Commission after the death of Homi J Baba in 1966.
7. Shanti Swaroop Bhatnagar Award in 1962 and Padma Bhushan Awards in 1966.
8. Died in Kovalam in 1971 December 31.
9. Mrinalini Sarabhai is wife. Daughter is Mallika Sarabhai. Both of them were famous dancers.

Dr S Radhakrishnan:

1. One among the pioneer scholars who introduced the Indian philosophies to World is Sr S Radhakrishnan. The first vice president and also the second president of India.
2. Born in Thiruttani of Madras in 1888 September 5. Full Name is Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan.
3. MA in Philosophy from Madras Christian College.
4. Assistant Lectureship from Madras Presidency College in 1909. The great scholar on the topics, Upanishad, Bhagavat Gita and Brahma Sutra. He is also a great scholar in the principles of Acharyas like Adi Shankara, Ramanuja and Madhava.
5. The vice chancellor of Andhra University in 1931.
6. The vice chancellor of Banaras Hindu University in 1939.
7. The Ambassador of UNESCO in 1946.
8. President of University Education Commission in 1948.
9. As Ambassador of Soviet Union in 1949.
10. Elected as Vice President of India in 1952 and as President of India in 1962.
11. Dr S Radhakrishnan is the President of India during India – China War.
12. Resigned from President Position in 1967.
13. Died in 1975 April 17.
14. September 5 is celebrated as National Teachers Day in memory of Dr S Radhakrishnan as it was his birth date.

Homi J Baba:

1. Born in Bombay in 1909 October 30.
2. Ph D from Cambridge University in 1934 after the study from El feinstein College of Mumbai and Royal Institute of Science.
3. Worked under CV Raman in Indian Institute of Science after returning to India in 1939. Established Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (Mumbai) along with JRD Tatta.
4. Formation of Atomic Energy Commission in 1948. HJ Baba is its first chairman.
5. It was under the leadership of Homi J Baba, the Asia’s first Atomic Reactor was established near Trombay of Bombay in 1956.
6. Several Awards including the honors of National Academy of Science is received from America.
7. Died in an Aeroplane Crash in Switzerland in 1966 January 24.

Satyajit Rai:

1. The famous film maker who got Bharat Ratna and Special Oscar Award for his contributions.
2. Born in Kolkata in 1921 May 2. Father is Sukumar Rai and Mother is Suprabha Rai.
3. Joined Presidency College after passing the Matriculation in 1936. Degree in Economics in 1939.
4. Art Student in Santhiniketan in 1940.
5. Returned from Santhiniketan in 1942.
6. Visualizer in a british advertising agency in 1943. Married his relative Bijoyadas, who was a famous singer and actress.
7. Released ‘Pather Panchali’ in 1955 August 26. Grant Pre Award from CAN Film Festival in 1956 for ‘Pather Panchali’.
8. Bibhutibhushan Bandyopadhyay was the writer of story of ‘Pather Panjali’.
9. Aparajito in 1956, Apur Sansar in 1959, Appu Triology (three films) etc were released.
10. Parash Pathar (1958), Jal Sagar (1958), Teen Kanya (1961), Charulatha (1964), Ganashatru (1989), Aagantuk (1991) were the famous films of Rai.
11. Received Oscar award for his contribution in 1992. In the same year, received Bharat Ratna.
12. Satyajit Rai died in 1992 April 23.

Vinoba Bhave:

1. The pioneer among social reformers of India in the 20th Century. The contributor of ‘Land Donation Movement’.
2. Born in Colaba of Maharahtra in 1895 September 11.
3. Joined Baroda High School in 1907 and passed Matric in 1913. Due to no interest in the qualifications of Education, he burnt School Certificates and went to Kashi in 1916.
4. Built a monastry in Vardha in 1921. The Paramdham ashram of paunar was the spiritual research center of Vinoba Bhave. Vinoba Bhave is nickenamed as ‘Monk of Paunar’. He also made a near relation with Gandhiji.
5. Visited Kerala in 1924 as an observer of Vaikom Satyagraha.
6. A Sarvodaya Movement was started under the leadership of Vinoba Bhave in 1948.
7. Actively participated in Civil Disobedience and Quit India Movement. Telugana Journey in 1951.
8. It was in 1951 April 18, the Land Donation Movement was started.
9. Vinoba Bhave died in the monastry of Paunar, Paramdham in 1982 November 15. The final resting place of him was Daam river bank.
10. The nation gave Bharat Ratna and honored him in 1982.
11. The Essence of Quran, The Essence of Christian Teachings, Thoughts on Education, Swarajya Sasthra was his notable works.

Lata Mangeshkar:

1. Born in Indore of Madhya Pradesh in 1929 September 28. Father is Dheenanath Mangeshkar. Mother is Sudhamati. The famous singers Asha Bhosle and Usha Mangeshkar, Meena Mangeshkar, Hridyanath Mangeshkar were his brother and sisters.
2. The first song sang by Lata was for the Marati film ‘Kiti Hasaal’ in 1942. After that acted in the films.
3. One of the memorious song from the throat of Lata is ‘Aaye Mere Vadan Ke Logo’ which was written and composed by poet ‘C Ramchandran’.
4. It was Lata Mangeshkar, who sang the malayalam song ‘Kadalli Chengadalli’, which was composed by Salil Chowdhury to the lyrics of Vayalar Ravi for the malayalam film ‘Nellu’.
5. Received Padma Bhushan in 1969.
6. Got a place in Guinness Book of Records in 1974 for the achievement of singing and recording the most songs.
7. Received the highest civilian honor ‘Legion D'honneur’ from French Government in 2006. Elected as Rajya Sabha member in 2006.
8. Lata Mangeshkar is the first asian to get the Platinum Disc of EMI London.
9. Received Bharat Ratna in 2001.
10. The Lata Mangeshkar Award was introduced in 1984 in order to honor the music experts by Madhya Pradesh Government.

MGR:

1. The first filmactor to get Bharat Ratna. Maruthur Gopalan Ramachandran was his full name. Puractzhi Thalaivar, Puractzhi Nadikar, Makkal Thilakam are the other popular names. The first film actor to became a chief miinister is MGR.
2. Born in Candy of Srilanka in 1917 January 17. Father is Maruthur Gopala Menon. Mother is Sathyabhama.
3. After the death of father, joined play group and reached Tamil Nadu. Acting Career by travelling around the state.
4. Acted in the film ‘Sati Leelavati’ in 1936.
5. Actor in the film ‘Rajkumari’ in 1947. National Award in 1972 for the acting in the film ‘Rickshawkaran’.
6. Joined Anna Durai’s Dravida Munnetta Kazhaka (DMK) in 1953. Legislative Assembly member in 1967.
7. The opinion difference with Karunanidhi after the death of Anna Durai. Formed a new party ‘AIADMK’ in 1972.
8. Huge victory for AIADMK in the election of 1977. MGR became Tamil Nadu Chief Minister. Consecutively became the Chief Minister for three times after the 1977 Election.
9. MGR died in 1987 December 24.

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