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PSC Class 89: The Great Indian National Movement

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1. It was Swamy Dayananda Saraswathy, who raised the slogan ‘India for Indians’.
2. The followers of Raja Ram Mohan Roy in 1828 formed a society with the name of Academic Association.
3. The landlords of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa formed a Zamindar Association in 1837 with that name.
4. The editor of newspaper ‘English Man’ was one among the secretary of C.Hurry Zamindar Association. This Society was later named to ‘Land Holders Society’.
5. British Indian Association formed a society with that name in 1851. Radhakanth Deb was its first president and Devendranath Tagore was its first Secretary.
6. For influencing the general people from Britain, Dadabhai Navaroji in 1866 formed a society in London called ‘East India Association’.
7. In 1870, Mahadev Govinda Ranade in Pune established a society called Sarvajanik Sabha with the aim of notify the government towards the economic disaster of people.
8. In 1875, a society called India League was established by political leaders who thought that there is need of All India Society for giving awareness about Nation.
9. Indian Association came into existence in 1876 which was established by Surendranath Banerji in the place of India League.
10. All India National Conference was held in Calcutta by an Indian Association in 1883 December.
11. The Second National Conference of Indian Association was conducted in 1885 December. In this meeting, an instruction was declared , that is to held a meeting of Indian National Congress at Bombay.

Bengal Partition (1905) :

1. A Bengal Partition was conducted by Lord Curzon by avoiding the people’s reactions.
2. Lord Curzon said the reason that a single lieutenant governor cannot administrate smoothly the whole Bengal, since the area of Bengal is much bigger for a governor to rule.
3. This Partition leads to the destruction of Indian Nationality through a province formation in the Muslim majority area and the Indian National Institution’s Bengal Division.

Swadeshi Movement:

1. The day in which Bengal Partition came into existence is conducted as Sad Day in the whole Bengal.
2. It was Bala Gangadar Tilak, who worked restless for the growth of Swadeshi Movement.
3. The song, Vande Mataram of Bankim Chandra Chatterjee is the struggle song of freedom fighting militants of India. The british stopped the people from singing the song publically.
4. The congress strongly expressed their objection through the usage of swadeshi or Indian made objects and ban of british made objects.

Partition Cancellation:

1. Cancelled the Bengal Partition in the period of Lord Hardings in 1911 after his failure in front of people’s organized strength.
2. Bengal Partition leads to the opinion difference between Hindus and Muslims which resulted in the raise of racial powers.

Suraj Split (1907):

1. In the Annual Organisation of congress in 1905, Gopala Krishna Gokule, who was the then president of congress publically opposed the partition and had given the support to Swadeshi institutions.
2. The clash between the moderators and extremists inside congress made a clear spit among them.
3. Lala Lajpat Rai, Bipin Chandra Pal and Bal Gangadhar Tilak together led the extremists through swaraj and publically made their arguments supporting the agitation policies.
4. Under the leadership of moderates including Gopala Krishna Gokhule, Firoz Shah Metta and Surendranath Banerjee through the conditional path of social political reformation, Partition was made. After the Surat Split, congress remained under the control of moderates.
5. It was during the annual organization of congress at surat in 1907, which leads to the state that split wanted to be made publically.
6. Extremists tried to prevent the Moderates supremacy in congress.
7. Extremists opposed the contestant of the moderate political activist, Ras Behari for president position and prevented helding meeting in peaceful atmosphere.

Minto – Morley Reforms:

1. The number of members for the election to central constituent assembly and province constituent assembly were increased according to Indian councils Act of 1909 otherwise called as Minto Morley Reform.
2. The racial venom was injected in Indian Politics by giving special legislative constituency for Muslims.
3. It was the Minto Morley reforms, which introduced social – religional reservation for first time. The Minto Morley Reforms for the first time tried to introduce communal representation (for muslims) under which Muslims could only vote for Muslim candidates.
4. Through the Minto Morley reformations, Viceroy’s Executive Council appointed one Indian and Indian council appointed two Indians.
5. Although the support of Muslim population was confirmed by Government, the cancellation of Bengal Partition in 1911 irked Muslims.

Growth of Revolution Movement:

1. Eligin II’s government arrested Bala Gangadhar Tilak for the first time on July 27, 1897 to eighteen months rigorous imprisonment for publication of poem entitled “Shivaji’s Litterances” in ‘Kesari’ magazine of June 15, 1897. He was then deported to Mandlya.
2. The blowing policy made by Government against Extremists and Cancellation of Bengal Partition led to political revolts. As a result, a certain section persuaded the terrorist activities for the purpose of their intention.
3. After 1905, several newspapers promoted the revolutionary movements. Among them, the important newspapers are ‘Yugantar’ of Bengal and ‘Kaal’ of Maharashtra.
4. The brother of Swamy Vivekananda, Boopendranath Dutta wrote many articles in ‘Yugantar’.
5. The train travelled by Sir Andrews Fraser is bombed, which resulted in change of track in December 1907. He was the leiutanent governor of Bengal.
6. In April 1908, Khudiram Bose and Prafullachari had thrown a bomb in the vehicle, which they thought that the district judge, Kings Ford is travelling in the vehicle. In this incident, two english women were dead.
7. In the Alipur Planning Case, Aravind Ghosh, his brother Virendra kumar Ghosh and 34 others were imprisoned.
8. The five laws which control the government human rights against extremist activities was passed in between 1907 November and 1910 August.
9. The Public Meetings Act, The Indian Press Act, The Sedicius Meeting Act, The Explosive Sub Standard Act, The News Paper Offence Act were the laws.

Formation of the Muslim League (1906):

1. The victory of British policy, ‘Divide and Rule’ and unconsidering the Muslims to the mainstream of national movement leads to the birth of Muslim League.
2. Aga Khan, Nawab Salimulla Khan and Nawab Mohsin-Ul-Haq contributed a major role in the formation of Muslim League in Dhaka at 1906 December 30.
3. Muslim League is the society formed as a result of Viceroy Lord Minto’s attempt to remove the muslims from Congress.
4. Muslim League declared that their aim is to protect the concern of Muslims and unconcern against British Government.
5. Muslim League declared that their aim is Self Government in 1913.

Home Rule League (1916):

1. During the period 1915-16, two home rules came into existence in India. One was established under the leadership of Bal Gangadhar Tilak and another was established under the leadership of Annie Besant and S Subramoniya Iyer.
2. The meaning of word ‘Home Rule’ is to carry out Self Government.
3. Annie Besant came to India as an active worker of Theosophical Society.
4. When Tilak limited his activities in Bombay province and central province, Annie Besant took the charge of activities in several other parts of India.
5. Annie Besant was imprisoned by British Government in June 1917.
6. Home Rule League was started as a turning point of Indian Freedom Struggle history.
7. The amendent of congress constitution made by Annie Besant helped Tilak and his followers to rejoin Congress.

Montague-Chelmsford Reforms:

1. In 1917 August 20, Edwin Montague (who was the then indian secretary) made his declaration about british’s policy on India in British Parliament is known in the name of Montague-Chelmsford  Reforms.
2. The content of reforms made by chemsford is increased inclusion of Indians in all branches of administration and thereby satisfying the self government establishments.
3. Montague Chelmsford Reforms became a basic factor for Government of India Act in 1919 which consists the instructions for the modification of constitution.
4. Through this reform, dyarchy (dual form of government) system was established in British India provinces.

Government of India Act (1919):

1. In 1918, a report was published in the name of Indian Constitution Modification. Through the base of this report, the Government of India Act was passed. It is known in the name of Montague Chelmsford Reforms.
2. According to this act, Central legislature assembly is changed to Dual Constituency Assembly – Council of States and Legislative Assembly.
3. This act permitted the nomination of three Indians to Executive Council of Viceroy.
4. This act instructed to give the salary of Indian Secretary from British general income and not from Indian general income.

Gandhian Period:

1. The arrival of Mahatma Gandhi in the Indian National Movement is one among the most important phase of Indian history.
2. Gandhiji returned to India in 1915 after bodly struggled against the racial discrimination of South African Government. Gandhiji founded a Satyagraha Asramam in the banks of Sabaramati of Gujarat at 1916.

Champaran Satyagraha (1917):

1. The peasants of Champaran region of Bihar were forced to cultivate indigo at the prices decided by the British. This system was known as Tinkathia system.
2. Gandhiji enquired the peasants about the exploitation. Gandhiji’s first Satyagraha in India was the Champaran in August 18, 1917 for the peasants.

Ahmedabad Mill Labour Rebellion (1918):

1. Gandhiji intervened when there raised verbal arguments between Mill owners of Ahmedabad and Labourers in 1918.
2. Gandhiji adviced labourers to ask for 35 percent increase in wage and also to conduct the Labour rebellion. Gandhiji also instructed not to make any kind of attack during the period of Labour rebellion.
3. In order to raise the strength for getting the rights of labourers, Gandhiji started a ‘fast unto death’.
4. In the fourth day after the held of fasting of Gandhiji, Mill Owners agreed to give 35 percent increase in wage for labourers.

Agricultural Rebellion in Khaira (1918):

1. The reason for the rebellion was due to Revenue officer’s strong decision to pay the full taxes by farmers without considering the crop destruction of their farmlands.
2. Gandhiji considered the problems of farmers and started Satyagraha and Tax exemption rebellions.
3. It was during this satyagraha period, Vallabhai Patel left the Advocate job and became a most loyal follower of Gandhiji.

Lucknow Pact (1916):

1. The Lucknow session of the Indian National Congress marked the reunion of the Moderates and Extremists together at Lucknow in 1916.
2. The all congress meeting after 1907 is Lucknow Congress Conference.
3. The Lucknow pact is one of the milestones in the history of Hindu-Muslim Unity.
4. According to this pact, a joined move was forwarded for the political modifications based on special legislative constituencies by Muslim League and Congress.
5. Government’s ban of Abdul Kalam Azad’s ‘Al Hilal’ newspaper and Maulana Muhammad Ali’s ‘Comrade’ newspaper, which contributed a major role in the growth of national movement and also the imprisonment of muslim youth leaders resulted in Muslim League’s enemity towards British and merge with Congress.

Rowlatt Act (1919):

1. British Government passed the Rowlatt Act in 1919.
2. This act permitted the government to arrest anyone without warrant and also to imprison anyone without any trail.
3. As a protest for passing the act, Madan Mohan Malavya and Muhammad Ali Jinnah resigned their membership from council.
4. The protest against Rowlatt Act leads to Jallianwala Bagh Massacre.

Jallianwala Bagh Massacre (1919):

1. Against the Rowlatt Act in the march of 1919, protests were conducted by the people across India.
2. The congress leaders of Punjab, Dr. Saifuddin Kitchlew and Dr. Satyapal were arrested by police with the order from the British Officer General Michael B Dyer.
3. After this incident, protests were conducted in Amristar in 1919 April 10.
4. The 144th section of criminal procedure code came into existence in April 12 in Amristar which bans all public meetings and rallies.
5. A peaceful meeting was organized in Jallianwala Bagh by Sikhs in the Baishaki festival day (April 13, 1919) near Amristar for protesting against the police and militant forces for their wickedness.
6. The British Officer, General Dyer ordered his troops to open fire at unarmed gathering, who were gathered for protest. Soon the Jallianwala Bagh became a massacre land.
7. On this occasion, Tagore renounced his ‘Sir’ honor in protest and also Sir C Shankaran Nair resigned from executive council of Viceroy.
8. A committee was appointed under the leadership of Lord Hunter for enquiring the massacre of Punjab by British government.
9. In 1920 March 27, General Dyer resigned his job and returned to his native place.

Khilafat Movement (1919):

1. The worldwide muslims considered Khalifa as the successor of Prophet Muhammad. The Muslims of India accepted Khalifa of Turkey as their spiritual teacher.
2. During First World War, Turkey allied with Germany against Britain.
3. Inorder to get Indian Muslims support for the preparation of war, English declared that they would not do any harmful activities against Turkey and other Muslim countries. The Muslims of India believed their declaration and gave their support to British.
4. When the war ended, Turkey Sultan Khalifa’s entire administration was lost and the Turkey was partitioned by Allied forces, which also includes the British.
5. Due to this incident, a Khilafat committee was formed under the leadership of Ali brothers (Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali) and Maulana Abdul Kalam Azad against British.
6. It was in 1919 September 21, the first all india khilafat conference was held in Lucknow.
7. It is decided to conduct 1919 October 17 as All India Khilafat Day by Khilafat Committee.

Non Co-operation Movement (1920):

1. On 1 June 1920, Khilafat Committee at Allahabad unanimously accepted Gandhi’s suggestion of non co-operation and asked him to lead the Movement.
2. A motion was presented by Khilafat Committee and Congress against British Government in 1920 September in Calcutta for starting the Non Co-operation Movement.
3. Prohibition of foreign products, resigning the government jobs, give up of honors of British government, boycott of schools, colleges, law courts and advocacy of the use of charka for weaving clothes were the main emphasis of non co-operation movement.
4. Chittaranjan Das, Motilal Nehru, Rajendra Prasad were the famous advocates who left practicing related with this movement.
5. Towards the end of 1921, except Gandhiji, all the famous leaders were imprisoned.
6. When Prince Wales of England visited India in November 1921, the protests throughout India is occurred. It became a mass movement, which also strengthened Hindu-Muslim Unity.
7. Gandhiji renounced the ‘Kaiser-i-Hind’ medal in August 1920, given to him for his work for British during the Boer War.
8. It was during the Ahmedabad Congress Conference in 1921, the decision to energize the Non Co-operation Movement was taken.

Chauri-Chaura Incident (1922):

1. In 1922 February 1, Gandhiji declared that, if all political prisoners were not released within seven days, he will start a wide disobey of Laws.
2. In February 5, 3000 peasants of Chauri Chaura in Gorkhpur district of Uttar Pradesh conducted a congress rally. During the rally, police fired the gun towards Public.
3. The angered public burned the police station, where 22 policemen were died in the fire. This is called as Chauri-Chaura Incident.
4. Gandhiji who was against the violence, was suffered mentally a lot with this incident.
5. With this incident, Gandhiji called off the Non Co-operation Movement on 11th February 1922 and persuaded the congress working committee to pass the Resolution of ending the Civil Disobedience Movement.
6. In February 12, Congress working committee passed the resolution, which promoted ‘’the stopping of all activities which may lead to Civil Disobedience’ during the meeting at Bardoli of Gujarat.
7. In 1922 March 10, Gandhiji is arrested and was punished for six years imprisonment.

Swaraj Party (1923):

1. C.R. Das and Motilal Nehru resigned from congress on 31 December 1922 and founded the Swaraj Party on 1st January 1923 at Allahabad.
2. The decided aim of Swaraj Party is to enter the councils formed based on Act of 1919. C.R. Das gave the slogan ‘Enter the Council’.
3. The first conference of Swaraj Party was held in 1923. A committee was formed with Motilal Nehru as President and C.R. Das as Secretary.
4. It was based on the resolution of Swaraj Party, Moodiman Committee was formed.
5. In 1924, when Gandhi came out of Jail, he supported the programme of Swaraj Party.

Simon Commission (1927):

1. In November 1927, the British Government appointed the Indian Statutory Commission popularly known as Simon Commission with Sir John Simon as President, to report on the working of the Act of 1919 and to suggest further changes in the direction of responsible government. Clement Atlee was also a member in the seven member commission.
2. Since the members of commission were all English people, the appointment of commission angered Indians.
3. When the Commission landed at Bombay in 3rd February 1928, all the major cities and towns observed a complete hartal and raised the slogan ‘‘Simon Go back’’.
4. In 1928 October 30, against Simon Commission in Lahore, a protest was led by Lala Lajpat Rai, who was severely wounded in police lathi charge and died.
5. The British officer, General Saunders who led the lathi charge was shot to death by Bhagat Singh, Azad and Raj Guru as a revenge for the death of Lala Lajpat Rai.

Bardoli Satyagraha (1928):

1. Bardoli Satyagraha is conducted by farmers of Gujarat against increase in Land Tax.
2. It was Sardar Vallabhai Patel, who led the Bardoli Satyagraha.
3. Vallabhai Patel was honoured with the popular title “Sardar” by Gandhiji after his leadership in Bardoli Satyagraha.

Nehru Report (1928):

1. The Congress Conference held in Calcutta in 1928 asked Government to give Dominion Status to India.
2. Under the leadership of Motilal Nehru, All – Parties Conference was held in Delhi for the preparation of a Constitution suitable to India.
3. Nehru Report was submitted in 1928 August 10.
4. In the All – Parties Conference met at Calcutta in December 1928, the Report was rejected due to problems cited by the racial leaders of Muslim League, Hindu Mahasabha and Sikh League.
5. In 1929 April 8, both Bhagat Singh and BK Dutt bombed the assembly hall of Central Legislative Assembly.
6. In 1931 March 23, Bhagat Singh, Sukh Dev and Rajguru was hanged to death.
7. In 1929 March 31, Simon Commision returned.

Poorna Swaraj Resolution (1929):

1. The Lahore session of the Congress in 1929 elected Jawaharlal Nehru as Congress President.
2. The Congress Conference met under the preside of Nehru introduced the resolution for Poorna Swaraj.
3. Jawaharlal Nehru unfurled the newly adopted Tricolour Flag in the midnight on 31 December 1929 of freedom on the bank of river Ravi.
4. Lahore Conference fixed 26 January 1930 as first independent day. Later in this memory, 26 January 1950 is selected as Republic day, which is also the day in which Indian Constitution came into existence.

Civil Disobedience Movement (1930):

1. In 1930, Gandhiji launched the Civil Disobedience Movement with the Salt Satyagraha or the Dandi March.
2. Lord Irwin, the then Viceroy called the decision of Gandhi as a ‘Kindergarten stage’ of revolution and the breaking of salt law as a ‘Storm in a tea cup’.
3. Gandhiji started his journey along with 78 followers in 1930 March 12 from Sabarmati Ashram of Gujarat to Dandi, which is 385 km away.
4. After a 24 days of lengthy journey, Gandhiji and team reached Dandi in 1930 April 5, Gandhiji break the Salt law in April 16.
5. After the Dandi March, Civil Disobedience Movement was occurred around the nation. Several womens also participated in this movement.

First Round Table Conference (1930):

1. The First Round Table Conference was organised by British Government to discuss about Simon Commission with Indian leaders at London. It was during the time of strengthening of Civil Disobedience Movement in India.
2. This Conference was from 12 November 1930 to 19 January 1931.
3. The conference was presided by the British Prime Minister, Ramsay Mac Donald. For this reason, Gandhiji and Congress leaders did not participate in it.

Gandhi-Irwin Pact (1931):

1. Due to failure in defending the Civil Disobedience Movement, Viceroy Lord Irwin announced  a political agreement with Congress.
2. Mahatma Gandhi and Irwin signed the Gandhi-Irwin Pact. After the Pact, Congress accepted to withdrew the Civil Disobedience Movement.
3. According to Gandhi-Irwin Pact, Government announced a vague offer of ‘dominion status’ for India in an unspecified future, may be in Second Round Table Conference.

Second Round Table Conference (1931):

1. The Second Round Table Conference was started in London in 1931 September 7.
2. 107 representatives including Gandhiji participated in this Conference.
3. In this Conference Gandhiji declared that racial problems can’t be solved, if British didn’t quit India. So it became a failure.
4. As a result, the Civil Disobedience movement was restarted on 3rd January 1932.

Third Round Table Conference (1932):

1. The Third Round Table Conference was started in London in 1932 November 17.
2. Congress didn’t participate in this conference. Only 46 representatives were invited in this conference, who were fond of Government.
3. The Third Round Table Conference agreed upon certain broad principles for the future constitutional set up - which were published later as ‘White paper’ in March 1933.
4. The Government of India Act was passed in 1935 based on White paper.
5. Dr BR Ambedkar is the national leader, who participated in all three round table conferences.
6. Winston Churchill described Gandhiji as a “Half naked seditious fakir” during his participation in Second Round Table Conference.
7. The Civil Disobedience Movement was stopped by Congress in 1934 May 20.

The Communal Award (1932):

1. The Communal Award was announced by British Prime Minister Ramsay Mac Donald on August 16, 1932 during the progression of Civil Disobedience Movement. It provides special electorates for Muslims, Sikhs, Christians, Anglo Indians and Europeans. The depressed classes were also assured special electorates. The congress objected it. Gandhiji started the fast unto death against Communal Award in Yervada Jail.

Redshirt Movement:

1. Redshirt Movement was launched under the leadership of Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan, popularly known as Frontier Gandhi in North West Frontier Province, in support of Indian National Congress. They followed Ahimsa for Independence Struggle.

Slogans:

1. Inqulab Zindabad – Author is Muhammad Iqbal. Bhagat Singh raised this slogan for first time.
2. Do or Die – Gandhiji
3. Jai Hind, Chalo Dhilli – Subhash Chandra Bose
4. Swaraj is my birthright and I shall have it. – Bal Gangadhar Tilak
5. Truth and Ahimsa was my God - Gandhiji

Government of India Act (1935):

1. British Government passed the Government of India Act in 1935 overcoming the opposition from Congress.
2. This Act systematized a federal type government in India.
3. The main features were an All India Federation, Provincial Autonomy, responsibilities with safeguards. Eleven British Indian Providences and Princely States prompted to join the All India Federation.
4. Governor General is the head of Federal Executive.
5. First general election as per the Act of 1935 was held in 1937, Congress got the majority, with seven among nine States.
6. But all the Congress Ministers of Cabinet resigned in 1939 as a protest against Britain’s decision to drag India into the Second World War.

August Offer (1940):

1. August Offer is the famous proclamation made by Lord Linlithgow on 8 August 1940.
2. This proclamation ensured to give dominion status and freedom to frame constitution based on representative nature to India.

Cripps Mission (1942):

1. Cripps Mission under Stafford Cripps arrived India in 1942 March 22.
2. In order to find out a political formula to transfer the power to Indians, Sir Stafford Cripps is sent to India.
3. The Mission is failed, since Indian leaders has no belief in British administration’s sincerity.
4. Gandhiji called the Cripps offer ‘‘a Post Dated Cheque of a Drowning Bank’’.

Quit India Movement (1942):

1. The main reason for beginning of Quit India Movement is the failure of Cripps Mission.
2. The All India Congress Committee met at Bombay on August 8, 1942 passed the famous Quit India resolution.
3. Quit India Movement was started in 9 August 1942.
4. On 9th August, the Police arrested Gandhiji and other activist members in Bombay. On the occasion of the Quit India Movement, Gandhiji raised the Slogan, ‘Do or Die’.
5. It was in the Govalia Tank Ground of Bombay, Gandhiji made the Quit India Speech in 8 August, 1942. (August Kranti Ground)
6. Muslim League’s new slogan during the Movement was ‘‘Divide and Quit’’.

Royal Indian Navy Mutiny (1946):

1. The Navy Mutiny occurred in Bombay in 1946 February 18 is to shake the base of British Administration.
2. About 1100 Navel ratings of HMIS Talwar Ship in Bombay went on strike against racial discrimination regarding pay and food. Inorder to express their protest towards British administration, Navels wrote th slogan ‘Quit India’ in HMIS Talwar.
3. BC Dutt was arrested for writing ‘Quit India’ on HMIS Talwar.
4. Both Congress and League didn’t suported the Navel ratings.

Cabinet Mission (1946):

1. The British Government headed by Attlee of the Labour Party, sent Cabinet mission to India for evaluating the state of Politics in India. Its aim is to give the administration in the hands of Indians.
2. Pethwick Lawrence, Stafford Cripps and A.V. Alexander were the members of Cabinet Mission.
3. The Mission was headed by Lord Pethwick Lawrence (Secretary of State).
4. Cabinet Mission proposed a federal government for whole India.
5. Cabinet Mission was not ready to hear the Pakistan’s condition for a separate nation for Muslims.
6. The Muslim League proclaimed ‘Direct Action Day’ on 16 August 1946 with battle cry of Pakistan’, ‘Larke Langa Pakistan’ and in September 2, 1946 as a ‘Day of Mourning’.
7. Elections to the Constituent Assembly were held under the Cabinet Mission Plan, in 1946.
8. It provided an interim government during the time of Lord Wavell.
9. On 2 September 1946 an Interim Government headed by Nehru of Congress came to power.
10. It was a 12 member Congress Ministry. Three members were Muslims. Liaqat Ali Khan became Finance Minister.

Constituent Assembly:

1. The Muslim League representatives and those from Indian States were abstained from constituent assembly.
2. The constituent Assembly started its session without any representatives from Muslim League on December 6, 1946.
3. Rajendra Prasad was elected as the President of the Constituent Assembly.

The Declaration of Atlee:

1. The Atlee declaration is made by prime minister, Atlee in british parliament in 1947 February 20 for solving the problems in India.
2. According to this declaration, British government will transfer the administration to India before 1948 June 1.
3. Lord Louies Mountbatten is appointed as Indian Viceroy.
4. Nehru called the declaration of Atlee as ‘a brave legstep’.

Mountbatten Plan (1947):

1. Mountbatten prepared the plan with the help of VP Menon.
2. According to Mountbatten Plan, India would be divided as India and Pakistan.
3. ‘Balcon Project’ is planned to divide India as India and Pakistan.
4. In 1947 June 30, Mountbatten Plan is officially accepted by both countries.
5. The transfer of administration, after partitioning India is called as ‘June 3 Project’ and also as Mountbatten Project.
6. British King John VI officially retired the position of Indian Emperor in 1948, June 22.

Indian Independence Act (1947):

1. In 1947 July 18, British Parliament passed the Indian Independence Act.
2. According to Indian Independence Act in 1947 August 15, India and Pakistan came into existence as Independent Dominions.
3. The Pakistan was officially inaugrated in August 14 by Lord Mountbatten with Jinnah as Governor General and Prime Minister as Liaqat Ali Khan.
4. India was declared independent of British rule in 1947 August 15 with New Delhi as Capital.
5. Lord Mountbatten took the pledge in 1947 August 15 as Governor General of Indian Dominion and Nehru as Prime Minister.
6. In 1950 January 26, a new constitution came into existence and India became an Independent Republic.
7. In 1948, Sir C Rajagopalachari took the pledge as Governor General of India. He is first Indian to serve the position.


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