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PSC Class 96: Memorials in India

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1. Pietermaritzburg is the South African railway station, where Gandhiji was exited due to his objection to travel in Foot Board of Train. ‘Tolstoy farm’ was instituted by Gandhiji in Johannesburg of South Africa for spreading the messages of Ahimsa and Satyagraha. It was in the Durban of South Africa, Gandhiji established Phoenix Settlement.

2. ‘Yasnaya Polyana’ is the home of world famous writer ‘Leo Tolstoy’.

3. The Highgate Cemetery of London is the final resting place of Karl Marx. The final resting place of Voltaire and Rousseau is Pantheon Cemetery of Paris.

4. The memorial of Abraham Lincoln is ‘National Mall’ of Washington DC.

5. The war memorial of commonwealth cemetery is Kohima of Nagaland.

6. The physical body of Mao Tse Tung is kept in Tiananmen Square of Beijing. The physical body of Ho Chi Minh is kept in Bading Square of Hanno in Vietnam.

7. The memorial ‘Aapravasi Ghat’ was built in Mauritius as a result to earlier period migration laborers from India.

8. Westminster Abbey is the final resting place of English Royal family members.

9. It was in the Yasukuni Shrine of Tokyo, the book named ‘Book of Souls’ which has the names of 25 lakh soldiers from the colony countries of Japan who died in different wars is listed.

10. The world trade center, which shattered in 2001 September 11, in the terrorist attack is called as ‘Ground Zero’. ‘Freedom Tower’ is the new building complex, which is planned to built in this place.

11. USS New York is the American warship which built from remnant metals of World Trade Center.

12. Buland Darwaza was built by Akbar in 1602 as a memorial after his victory over Gujarat. It is located in Fathepur Sikri of Agra.

India Gate:

1. India Gate is located in Rajpath of New Delhi. Earlier India Gate is known as the ‘All India War Memorial’.
2. The construction of India Gate was started in 1921 February 10. It completed its construction in 1931. Edwin Lutyens is its british sculptor.
3. It is the memorial to Indian Soldiers, died in First World War and Afghan War. Height is 42 meter.
4. Amar Jawan Jyoti was lightened in India Gate. It was from 1971 onwards, Amarjawan Jyoti is started its lightening.

Gateway of India:

1. The memorial of ‘Gateway of India’ is in Mumbai. It is a memorial, built after the George 5th of England’s visit to India in 1911.
2. It is designed by George Wittet.
3. 26 meter was its height. It was inaugurated in 1924 December 4. It was built by the company ‘Gammon India Limited’.

Amar Jyoti:

1. Amar Jyoti was lightened in the Jallianwalla Bag of Punjab.
2. Amar Jyoti was in memory of deaths happened in the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre in 1919 April 13. It was instituted by Indian Oil Corporation.

Swatantra Jyoti:

1. Swatantra Jyoti was lightened in the cellular jail of Port Blair in the Andaman Nicobar Islands. It was established by Indian Oil Corporation in 2004.

Charminar:

1. Charminar is located in the Hyderabad of Andra Pradesh. The construction was completed in 1591. It was built by the ruler ‘Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah’. It was built as a memory of removal of plague disease spread across the nation. Charminar consists of four minars. Each minar has 48.7 meter width.

Taj Mahal:

1. One of the world wonder, Taj Mahal is located in the bank of Yamuna river of Agra in Uttar Pradesh.
2. It was constructed by emperor, Shah Jahan in memory of his wife Mumtaz Mahal. Ustad Ahmad Lahauri is its main sculptor. It started its construction in 1632 and ended in 1648. Shah Jahan brought the place for construction from Raja Jayasimha.
3. Taj Mahal complex is located around the area of 17 hectares. In 1983, it is declared as World Heritage Site.
4. It was Rabindranath Tagore, who quoted Taj Mahal as “The Taj Mahal rises above the banks of the river like a solitary tear suspended on the cheek of time..
5. Aeroplanes were not allowed to fly over Taj Mahal.

INA Museum:

1. INA Museum is located in Moirang of Manipur.

Victoria Memorial:

1. The famous Victoria Memorial is located in Kolkata. Its construction was completed in 1921.

Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus:

1. Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus was in Mumbai. Earlier it is called in the name of Victoria Terminus.

Napier Museum:

1. Napier Museum is located in Thiruvananthapuram.
2. Veluthampi Dalawa Memorial was in Mannadi.
3. It was in the Iringal of Kozhikode district, the Kunjali Marakkar Memorial is located.

Movements, Founders:

1. Theosophical Society (1875) – Madame Blavatsky, Colonel Olcott
2. Brahma Samaj (1828) – Raja Ram Mohan Roy
3. Arya Samaj (1875) – Swamy Dayananda Saraswathi
4. Ramakrishna Mission (1897) – Swamy Vivekananda
5. Prarthana Samaj (1867) – Atmaram Pandurang
6. Servants of India Society (1905) – Gopalakrishna Gokhule
7. Sarvodaya Movement – Jayaprakash Narayan
8. Land Donation Movement - Vinoba Bhave
9. Self Respect Movement (1925) – EV Ramaswamy Naicker
10. Bharthiya Vidya Bhavan – KM Munshi
11. Home Rule Movement – Annie Besant, Bal Gangadhar Tilak
12. Anusheelan Samiti – P Mitra
13. Gadar Party – Lala Hardayal
14. Red Shirts – Khan Abdul Gafer Khan
15. Satya Shodak Samaj – Govinda Phule
16. Ahmmadiya Movement – Mirsa Gulam Ahmed
17. Alighat Movement – Sir Syed Ahmed Khan


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