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PSC Class 98: Personalities of India

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Jawaharlal Nehru:

1. Born in Allahabad in 1889 November 14. Motilal Nehru was his father. Swarup Rani was his Mother. Vijaya Lakshmi Pandit, Krishna Harkeerti Singh were brothers of Nehru.
2. ‘Anand Bhavan’ is the familyhouse of Nehru in Allahabad.
3. Nehru joined Haro Public School of England in 1905. After that, an owner’s degree was obtained from Cambridge Trinity College in 1907. He returned to India in 1912 after obtaining the law degree from london in 1910. Returned to India in 1912.
4. Married Kamala Kaul in 1916. The only daughter, Indira Priyadarshini was born in 1917.
5. It was in the Congress Annual Conference held in Lucknow in 1916, Nehru and Gandhiji met for first time. Due to attraction in the activities of Gandhiji, Nehru entered politics in 1921 and was arrested due to Khilafat agitation.
6. Nehru and his wife Kamala was arrested for their participation in Dandi March after the campaigns organised against salt law in 1930.
7. Nehru was in jail for almost nine years in the name of several offences in between 1921 to 1945.
8. The collection of postal letters written by Nehru to his daughter, Indira during his imprisonment is released as a book in the name ‘Glimpses of World History’.
9. ‘Glimpses of World History’ is translated in malayalam in the name ‘Orachan Makalkku Ayacha Kattukal’ by Ambadi Ikkavamma.
10. It was in the Lahore Congress Conference in 1929, the position of Congress president was transferred to Jawaharlal Nehru from Motilal Nehru.
11. ‘National Herald’ is the newspaper started by Nehru.
12. Nehru took the administration as first prime minister in 1947, when india became independent. It was Nehru, who served as Indian prime minister for most periods.
13. Nehru died in 1964 May 27, while serving as prime minister.
14. The final resting place of Nehru is ‘Shanti Vanam’.
15. Jawaharlal Nehru Award for International Understanding is the award given by Indian Government from 1965 onwards. Twenty Five lakh is the award amount.
16. U- Tant, who was the first asian UN Secretary General is the receiver of the Nehru Award for first time and it was in 1965.
17. Mother Teresa in 1969 is the first women to get this Nehru Award.

Rabindranath Tagore:

1. The first indian to receive Nobel Prize and also was the first Asian to receive this honor.
2. Born in Kolkata in 1861 May 7. Father is Maharishi Devendranath Tagore. Mother is Sarada Devi. Famous Bengali writer, Swarnakumari was the sister of Rabindranath Tagore.
3. Married Bhavatarani who has only 10 years old during his marriage in 1883. The name ‘Bhavatarani’ is later named to Mrinalini.
4. The first short story written by Tagore is ‘Bhikarini’. It was published in the family newspaper, ‘Bharati’ in 1877.
5. Chinnapatra, Samapti, Kabooliwala, Paila Nambar were the famous short stories of Tagore.
6. The first published poem of Tagore is ‘Abhilasha’, which is published in the paper ‘Tattwabodhini’ in 1874.
7. In 1880, Tagore wrote the play ‘Valmiki Pratibha’ and he also acted in that play.
8. He founded Shantiniketan in 1901.
9. The Tagore home is located in the Jorasanko of Kolkata.
10. In 1908, Shantiniketan became his permanent residence.
11. In order to sing a song in the congress conference in 1911, Tagore wrote the ‘Janaganamana’. Later it became National Anthem of India.
12. Tagore dropped the ‘Sir’ honour due to his anger against Jallianwalla Bag Massacre in 1919.
13. In 1913, the poem collection ‘Gitanjali’ got the Nobel Prize.
14. The Viswabharathi University was established in 1921 December 22. In 1951, Viswabharathi was approved as central university.
15. Rabindranath Tagore died in 1941 August 7.

Subhash Chandra Bose:

1. Born in Cuttack of Orissa in 1897 January 23. Father is Janakinath Bose and Mother is Prabhavati.
2. Arrested in the name of activities against government in 1921.
3. Elected as Kolkata Mayor, while in Prison in 1931.
4. Elected as Congress President in the Haripura Congress Conference in 1938.
5. In 1937, marriage with an austrian lady, Emilie Schenkl.
6. Subhash Chandra Bose once again became congress president defeating Pattabhi Sitaramayya, who contested with Gandhiji’s ideologies in 1939.
7. The party ‘Forward Bloc’ was established in 1939.
8. A No Food Agitation was held while in prison in 1940 November. Bose was house jailed due to his health problem in prison. In 1941 January 7, Bose was disappeared from house jail.
9. He entered Germany in the name of ‘Orlando Mazzotta’. It was in this place, militant activities are started.
10. Indian Independence League is formed in Bangkok in 1942 September 1.
11. The women armal section ‘Rani of Jhansi’ was formed by Bose by taking the leadership of Indian National Army from Rash Behari Bose.
12. In 1944, the INA Capital was shifted to Rangoon.
13. In 1945 May, INA Commander Shanavas Khan and group were surrendered.
14. The Indian Struggle, An Indian Pilgrim, The Alternative leadership, Letters to Emilie Schenkl was the famous works of Bose. ‘An Indian Pilgrim’ is the incomplete autobiography of Netaji.
15. The one member commission formed in 2004 for enquiring the missing of Netaji is Mukherjee Commision.
16. Tagore mentioned Subhash Chandra Bose as ‘Desh Nayak’.
17. CR Das is the political guru of Subhash Chandra Bose.
18. Gandhiji mentioned Subhash Chandra Bose as ‘Patriot of Patriots’.

Raja Ram Mohan Roy:

1. The Renaissance leader of Modern India.
2. Raja Ram Mohan Roy was born as second son of Ramakanta Roy and Tarini Devi from Radha Nagar of Bengal in 1772 May 22.
3. In 1802, became an officer in East India Company.
4. He resigned his job in 1815.
5. Under the leadership of Uttarayan Association, Anglo Hindu School was started in 1822.
6. Vedanta College was started in 1825.
7. Brahma Samaj was founded in 1828. For the campaign of Brahma Samaj, ‘Tattva Kaumudi’ weekly was started.
8. A report on abolishment of ‘Sati’ was released in 1829 November 26. It was Lord William Bentic, who released the order of Abolishment of Sati after the activities of Raja Ram Mohan Roy against Sati.
9. It was under the leadership of Raja Ram Mohan Roy, the first missionary school of India was founded. It was in 1830 July 13.
10. In 1830, he went to England. He was the first indian to visit England.

Swamy Vivekananda:

1. Born in Kolkata in 1863 January 12. The earlier name is Narendranath Dutta. Father is Viswanath Dutta. Mother is Bhuvaneswari.
2. The spiritual teacher of Vivekananda is Sree Ramakrishna Paramahamsa. Became the leader for spreading the advices of Guru after the Sree Ramakrishna Paramahamsa’s retire of life in 1886. Sree Ramakrishna Mission was founded in 1897.
3. Sarath Chandra Gupta is the first student of Vivekananda.
4. Margaret E Noble is the british women who attracted towards the speechs of Vivekananda. Later she became the student of Swamy in the name of Sister Nivedita.
5. In 1892, he reached Kanyakumari from Thiruvananthapuram through the way of Rameswaram.
6. Participated in the Chicago World All Religion Conference in 1893 September and made his speech.
7. Vedanta Society of New York was founded in 1894.
8. First England tour in 1895.
9. Second western tour in 1899.
10. Swamy Vivekananda retired his life in July  4 in 1902.
11. The birth day of Vivekananda, January 12 is celebrating as ‘National Youth Day’.

Dr Bhimrao Ambedkar:

1. The everlasting leader of officers of India. The first law minister of Independent India. The great person who got a place in history of chairman position in Constituent Assembly. His nick name is ‘Modern Manu’.
2. Born in a place in Madhya Pradesh, which is now called as Mhow in 1891 April 14. The birth of Ambedkar was in the Mahar section, which is now believed as officers group. Father is Ramji Sakpal and mother is Bhimabhai.
3. Passed BA from EL finstein College in 1912. Job in Baroda State Service in 1913. After that, went to aboard for higher studies.
4. Passed MA from Colombia University in 1915. Obtained Ph D in 1916.
5. Became the military secretary of Baroda king just after returned to India. The job was designed by Ambedkar due to the prevailing caste society and went to Bombay.
6. The national conferences were summoned in 1925 April 10 and April 11.
7. Inorder to aware the needs of officers to their main officers, Ambedkar started the publication ‘Mookanayak’ in Marati Language. ‘Bahishkrit Bharat’ is the di-weekly started by Ambedkar.
8. The All India Conference of officer sections was met in 1930 August. Ambedkar was its president.
9. Inorder to participate in Round Table Conference in 1930, Ambedkar went to London. Ambedkar is the Indian leader who participated in the three Round Table Conferences.
10. Independent Labour Party is formed in 1936. People’s Education Society was formed in 1946.
11. In July 1942, became the labour member of Executive council of Viceroy.
12. 1947 August 15 – Indian Law Minister.
13. 1947 August 29 – Chairman of Constituent Assembly.
14. 1957 – Resigned from Cabinet.
15. It was from Bombay State, Ambedkar was elected to Constituent Assembly.
16. 1952 – Rajya Sabha Member
17. Died in Delhi in 1956 December 4.
18. ‘Chaitanya Bhumi’ is the final resting place of Ambedkar. It was in Mumbai.

Sardar Vallabhai Patel:

1. The strengthiest leader who contributed a major role in the unification of Indian local countries. He is called as ‘The Iron Man of India’. Sardar Vallabhai Patel is also the first cabinet minister and first vice prime minister of Independent India.
2. He was born in Nadiad of Gujarat in 1875 October 31. Father is Javer Bhai and Mother is Lad Bhai.
3. Passed High School in 1896. The law exam was passed by hearing the debates in court, since there is no way for him to join the law college. He started practicing classes in Godhra.
4. Patel passed the Barister Atlo Exam in England. Returned to India in 1913.
5. Elected as Sanitation Commisioner in Ahmedabad in 1917. Attracted in the activities of Gandhiji.
6. Became popular in the national level after his contribution in struggles against the over tax collection in Kheda of Gujarat in 1918.
7. Became Ahmedabad Muncipal President in 1922, 1924 and 1927.
8. Led the Bardoli Sathyagraha in 1928.
9. An arrest for the participation in civil law disobedience movement in 1930.
10. Elected as Congress president in the Karachi Congress Conference in 1931.
11. Patel and Gandhiji was imprisoned in Yervada jail in 1932 after the failure of Second Round Table Conference.
12. Jailed for second time after the Quit India Movement.
13. Firstly, became the Vice Prime Minister in Nehru Cabinet and after that became the Cabinet Minister, Information and Broadcasting Minister. The duty of Ministry of States was also handled by Patel.
14. Died after a heart attack in 1950 December 15.
15. Nation gave the Bharat Ratna honour to Sardar Vallabhai Patel in 1991.
16. It was Gandhiji, who gave the position name ‘Sardar’ to Vallabhai Patel.

Sarojini Naidu:

1. The brave freedom fighter who is called as the ‘The Nightingale of India’ is Sarojini Naidu. The first Indian women to become the president of Indian National Congress. The first women to handle the position of State Governor.
2. Born in Hyderabad in 1879 February 13. Father is Aghornath Chattopadhyaya, who was the scientist and scholar. Mother is the famous Bengal poet, Bharata Sundari Devi.
3. Passed Matriculation from Madras University.
4. Went to England in the Age 16. Studied in Kings College of London and Girton College of Cambridge.
5. Published ‘The Golden Threshold’ in 1905, ‘The Bird of Time’ in 1912 and ‘The Broken Wing’.
6. Married Govindaraj Naidu after two years of her first meet in the Age 15.
7. Joined National Movement related with Bengal Partition in 1905.
8. Sarojini Naidu is the president of Kanpur Congress Conference in 1925.
9. Became the ever freedom Governor of Uttar Pradesh in 1947.
10. Sarojini Naidu died in 1949 March 2.

Indira Gandhi:

1. The first women prime minister of India. The daughter of first prime minister, Jawaharlal Nehru and Kamala Nehru. She is called as ‘The Iron Woman of India’.
2. Born in Allahabad in 1917 November 19.
3. Marriage with Feroz Gandhi in 1942.
4. Worked as a supporter in cabinet of Jawaharlal Nehru between the years from 1947 to 1965.
5. Became the Indian National Congress president in 1964.
6. Information and Broadcasting Minister in the Lal Bahdur Shastri Cabinet in 1964.
7. Became Prime Minister in 1966 after the death of Lal Bahdur Shastri.
8. Through the Land Reformation actions and Bank Nationalization, got a place in history through her administration. It was in 1969, first phase of Bank Nationalization actions were started. It was in 1969, Privy Purse was stopped and the Second phase of Bank Nationalization in 1980.
9. Indira Gandhi raised the famous slogan ‘Gareebi Hattao’ related to General Election in 1971.
10. India won in Indo-Pak war of 1971.
11. Allahabad High Court banned the election of 1971 and that order was released in 1975 June. The constituency in which Indira won in 1971 Election is Raebareli of Uttar Pradesh.
12. Got Bharat Ratna in 1971.
13. Declared President Rule in 1975 June 26. The President Rule became a black episode in the history of Freedom India. The country was under the President until 1977 March 21.
14. Indira Congress lost the next general election. The joint party cabinet called Janata Morcha came into existence. Morarji Desai became Prime Minister.
15. Became Prime Minister for second time in 1980.
16. The armal move was held in Golden Temple searching Sikh terrorists in 1984. This move is called as ‘Operation Bluestar’.
17. Indira Gandhi died after the firing from her own Sikh security soldiers in 1984 October 31.

Swamy Dayananda Saraswati:

1. Founder of Arya Samaj. The vedanta scholar, who contributed a major role in Renaissance. The nickname is ‘Calvin of Hindu Religion’.
2. Born in Tangara of Gujarat in 1824. His earlier monastry name is Moola Shankar.
3. Accepted Swami Virjanand Saraswati as teacher in Mathura in 1860. He gave the name Dayananda to Moola Shankar.
4. Made theories against the Child Marriage, Idol Worship and Case System by travelling around India. Made awareness by finding the wants of unification between the Vedic Science and Technical Science.
5. Established Arya Samaj in 1875. Arya Samaj is the service society for obtaining equal justice for all.
6. Reached Palace by accepting the visit of Jodhpur King during the Deepavali celebrations in 1883. Tried to aware the king about the need of leading a loyal life. In that night, Swamy Dayananda Saraswati was put to death by food poison by the enemies of palace.
7. ‘Satyarth Prakash’ was the famous work o Swami Dayananda Saraswati.

Vikram Sarabhai:

1. He is called as father of Indian Space Project.
2. Born in Ahmedabad in 1919 August 12. Full Name is Vikram Ambalal Sarabhai.
3. Degree from St.John’s College in 1940. After that, research under the Sir CV Raman in Indian Institute of Science.
4. Ph D from Cambridge in 1947. Leadership for establishing the physical research lab in Ahmedabad. Engaged in the research about the cosmic rays and related processes.
5. Chairman of Indian National Committee for Space Research in 1957.
6. Became the Chairman of Atomic Energy Commission after the death of Homi J Baba in 1966.
7. Shanti Swaroop Bhatnagar Award in 1962 and Padma Bhushan Awards in 1966.
8. Died in Kovalam in 1971 December 31.
9. Mrinalini Sarabhai is wife. Daughter is Mallika Sarabhai. Both of them were famous dancers.

Dr S Radhakrishnan:

1. One among the pioneer scholars who introduced the Indian philosophies to World is Sr S Radhakrishnan. The first vice president and also the second president of India.
2. Born in Thiruttani of Madras in 1888 September 5. Full Name is Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan.
3. MA in Philosophy from Madras Christian College.
4. Assistant Lectureship from Madras Presidency College in 1909. The great scholar on the topics, Upanishad, Bhagavat Gita and Brahma Sutra. He is also a great scholar in the principles of Acharyas like Adi Shankara, Ramanuja and Madhava.
5. The vice chancellor of Andhra University in 1931.
6. The vice chancellor of Banaras Hindu University in 1939.
7. The Ambassador of UNESCO in 1946.
8. President of University Education Commission in 1948.
9. As Ambassador of Soviet Union in 1949.
10. Elected as Vice President of India in 1952 and as President of India in 1962.
11. Dr S Radhakrishnan is the President of India during India – China War.
12. Resigned from President Position in 1967.
13. Died in 1975 April 17.
14. September 5 is celebrated as National Teachers Day in memory of Dr S Radhakrishnan as it was his birth date.

Homi J Baba:

1. Born in Bombay in 1909 October 30.
2. Ph D from Cambridge University in 1934 after the study from El feinstein College of Mumbai and Royal Institute of Science.
3. Worked under CV Raman in Indian Institute of Science after returning to India in 1939. Established Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (Mumbai) along with JRD Tatta.
4. Formation of Atomic Energy Commission in 1948. HJ Baba is its first chairman.
5. It was under the leadership of Homi J Baba, the Asia’s first Atomic Reactor was established near Trombay of Bombay in 1956.
6. Several Awards including the honors of National Academy of Science is received from America.
7. Died in an Aeroplane Crash in Switzerland in 1966 January 24.

Satyajit Rai:

1. The famous film maker who got Bharat Ratna and Special Oscar Award for his contributions.
2. Born in Kolkata in 1921 May 2. Father is Sukumar Rai and Mother is Suprabha Rai.
3. Joined Presidency College after passing the Matriculation in 1936. Degree in Economics in 1939.
4. Art Student in Santhiniketan in 1940.
5. Returned from Santhiniketan in 1942.
6. Visualizer in a british advertising agency in 1943. Married his relative Bijoyadas, who was a famous singer and actress.
7. Released ‘Pather Panchali’ in 1955 August 26. Grant Pre Award from CAN Film Festival in 1956 for ‘Pather Panchali’.
8. Bibhutibhushan Bandyopadhyay was the writer of story of ‘Pather Panjali’.
9. Aparajito in 1956, Apur Sansar in 1959, Appu Triology (three films) etc were released.
10. Parash Pathar (1958), Jal Sagar (1958), Teen Kanya (1961), Charulatha (1964), Ganashatru (1989), Aagantuk (1991) were the famous films of Rai.
11. Received Oscar award for his contribution in 1992. In the same year, received Bharat Ratna.
12. Satyajit Rai died in 1992 April 23.

Vinoba Bhave:

1. The pioneer among social reformers of India in the 20th Century. The contributor of ‘Land Donation Movement’.
2. Born in Colaba of Maharahtra in 1895 September 11.
3. Joined Baroda High School in 1907 and passed Matric in 1913. Due to no interest in the qualifications of Education, he burnt School Certificates and went to Kashi in 1916.
4. Built a monastry in Vardha in 1921. The Paramdham ashram of paunar was the spiritual research center of Vinoba Bhave. Vinoba Bhave is nickenamed as ‘Monk of Paunar’. He also made a near relation with Gandhiji.
5. Visited Kerala in 1924 as an observer of Vaikom Satyagraha.
6. A Sarvodaya Movement was started under the leadership of Vinoba Bhave in 1948.
7. Actively participated in Civil Disobedience and Quit India Movement. Telugana Journey in 1951.
8. It was in 1951 April 18, the Land Donation Movement was started.
9. Vinoba Bhave died in the monastry of Paunar, Paramdham in 1982 November 15. The final resting place of him was Daam river bank.
10. The nation gave Bharat Ratna and honored him in 1982.
11. The Essence of Quran, The Essence of Christian Teachings, Thoughts on Education, Swarajya Sasthra was his notable works.

Lata Mangeshkar:

1. Born in Indore of Madhya Pradesh in 1929 September 28. Father is Dheenanath Mangeshkar. Mother is Sudhamati. The famous singers Asha Bhosle and Usha Mangeshkar, Meena Mangeshkar, Hridyanath Mangeshkar were his brother and sisters.
2. The first song sang by Lata was for the Marati film ‘Kiti Hasaal’ in 1942. After that acted in the films.
3. One of the memorious song from the throat of Lata is ‘Aaye Mere Vadan Ke Logo’ which was written and composed by poet ‘C Ramchandran’.
4. It was Lata Mangeshkar, who sang the malayalam song ‘Kadalli Chengadalli’, which was composed by Salil Chowdhury to the lyrics of Vayalar Ravi for the malayalam film ‘Nellu’.
5. Received Padma Bhushan in 1969.
6. Got a place in Guinness Book of Records in 1974 for the achievement of singing and recording the most songs.
7. Received the highest civilian honor ‘Legion D'honneur’ from French Government in 2006. Elected as Rajya Sabha member in 2006.
8. Lata Mangeshkar is the first asian to get the Platinum Disc of EMI London.
9. Received Bharat Ratna in 2001.
10. The Lata Mangeshkar Award was introduced in 1984 in order to honor the music experts by Madhya Pradesh Government.

MGR:

1. The first filmactor to get Bharat Ratna. Maruthur Gopalan Ramachandran was his full name. Puractzhi Thalaivar, Puractzhi Nadikar, Makkal Thilakam are the other popular names. The first film actor to became a chief miinister is MGR.
2. Born in Candy of Srilanka in 1917 January 17. Father is Maruthur Gopala Menon. Mother is Sathyabhama.
3. After the death of father, joined play group and reached Tamil Nadu. Acting Career by travelling around the state.
4. Acted in the film ‘Sati Leelavati’ in 1936.
5. Actor in the film ‘Rajkumari’ in 1947. National Award in 1972 for the acting in the film ‘Rickshawkaran’.
6. Joined Anna Durai’s Dravida Munnetta Kazhaka (DMK) in 1953. Legislative Assembly member in 1967.
7. The opinion difference with Karunanidhi after the death of Anna Durai. Formed a new party ‘AIADMK’ in 1972.
8. Huge victory for AIADMK in the election of 1977. MGR became Tamil Nadu Chief Minister. Consecutively became the Chief Minister for three times after the 1977 Election.
9. MGR died in 1987 December 24.


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