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PSC Class 117: Ancient Kerala

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1. The oldest work which mentions Kerala was ‘Aitareya Aranyakam’.
2. The sangam period work, which mentions Onam is ‘Maduraikanchi’.
3. The author of ancient roman work ‘Natural History’ which mentions Kodugallore is Pliny.
4. The place which is called as ‘Muziris’ that mentioned in ancient scripts were Kodugallore.
5. The year in which huge flood occurred in Periyar, which resulted in devastation of Kodugallore Harbour is 1341. It later resulted in the formation of Kochi Harbour.
6. It was from Arabi travellers, Malayalam got the words Kathu, Harji, Vakeel, Taluk, Keesha, Kacheri and Japti.
7. It was from Chinese travellers, Keralites discovered the technique of making Soil Utensils.
8. The Buddha idol that discovered from Karumadi near to Ambalapuzha is called as Karumadikuttan.
9. Trikannamatilakam is the famous jain religion center of Ancient Kerala.
10. Sreemoolavasam is the major Buddha religion center of Ancient Kerala.
11. Kantalur Sali is called as ‘Dakshina Nalanda’ of Ancient Kerala, which is the popular education center.
12. Vikramaditya Varagunan is the Ay ruler who is called as ‘Asoka of South India’.
13. The year in which Jesus’s apostle ‘St Thomas’ visited Malliankara near Kodugallore is AD 52.
14. The year in which jewish people reached Kerala from Jerusalem after religion discrimination is AD 68.
15. The ruler who released Terisapalli Copper Plate in AD 849 is Ayyan Adikal (Governor of Sthanu Ravi Varman) of Venad.
16. The ruler who released  Jewish Plate in AD 1000 is Bhaskara Ravi Varman. This plate granted the right to collect taxes and the position of ‘Anchuvannam’ to the Jewish noble, Joseph Rabban.
17. Manigramam, Anchuvannam and ‘Valanchiur’ were famous merchant’s guilds of the period.
18. The merchant guild also called as Anchuvannam belongs to jews.
19. The merchant guild of Syrian Christians in Ancient Kerala is ‘Manigramam’.
20. The major merchant guild of ancient kerala who had trade link with foreign people is Valanchiur.
21. Manigramam is the merchant guild who engaged in gem trade.
22. The famous scholar of ancient kerala, Sarvajnana Muni was in the court of Bhaskara Ravi Varma.
23. The main duty of Nootuvar Sangam during the period of Perumakkans was country protection.
24. General behaviour laws were the kachangal during Perumakkanmar’s period.
25. Moozhikulam Kacham is the approved Kacham which was considered as the important law throughour ancient kerala.
26. Sankaracharya was born in AD 788.
27. Kolla Varsha was started in AD 825.
28. It is generally believed that, Udaya Marthanda Varma started Kolla Varsham.
29. The famous poet of Ancient Kerala, Athulan was from the court of Mushaka King ‘Sree Kandan’.
30. The work ‘Mushaka Vamsam’ was written by Athulan.
31. The current name of Thiruvanchikulam or Mahodayapuram (which is once was the center of Cheras) is Kodugallor.
32. The most popular ruler of Ezhimala Kingdom is Nannan.
33. The ancient greek sailor who discovered the direction of Monsoon wind is Hippalus (AD 45).
34. The harbour of Kerala which was once the major trade center of china is Kollam.
35. It was in Palakkad, a hill with the name ‘Jainamedu’ is located in Kerala.
36. Manimekhalai is tamil notable work, which is considered as a complete Buddha poem.
37. The Bhakti movement had two branches in ancient kerala, ie the Vaishnavites led by the Alwars and the saivites led by the Nayanars.
38. The Synod of Diamper (Udayamperur Sunnahadose) to reform Kerala Church was conducted by the Portuguese in 20 June 1599.
39. The ‘‘Oath of the Coonan Cross’ against the appointment of Latin Bishop was conducted in Mattancherry in 1653.
40. Sankaracharya was born in Kaladi in AD 788.
41. Sankaracharya is called as Modern Buddha.
42. Vivekachoodamani, Saundarya Lahari, Sivanandalahari, Updeshasahasri, Atmabodha and Mohamudra were the important poems of Sankaracharya.
43. Sankaracharya founded four mutts in four corners of India; Badrinath in the North (Jyotir Mutt) Puri in the east (Govardhan) Dwaraka in the West (Sarada Mutt) and Sringeri in the south.
44. Govindapadar is the teacher of Sankaracharya.
45. Sankaracharya retired his life in AD 820.
46. The work ‘Sankaranarayaneeyam’ written by Sankara Narayanan was related to Mathematics.
47. ‘Koodiyattam’ is the kerala sanskrit art play.
48. The land got as gift for temples is called as Devaswom Land.
49. Cherikkal Land is the land wealth which was under the control of Kings and Feudal lords.
50. The land wealth given as gift for Temple Kazhakas is Viruthi Land.
51. It was under the protection of Udhaya Varman (1446 - 1478) who was the ruler of Kolathu Nadu, Cherussery wrote Krishna Gatha.
52. Travancore was called as Venad during Medieval Ages.
53. Kollam is called as Desingnadu in earlier period.
54. VeeraRaghava Pattayam (Iravikorthan Cheped) was given to a Christian noble by Veera Ravi Varma. It gave Manigrama Pattam and other special rights.
55. Mahuan is the chinese traveller who visited kerala.
56. Vadassery Namboothiri is the keralite, who started a new mathematical science system called Duganitham.
57. It was from the court of Kozhikode Zamorin ‘Manavikraman’, ‘Pathinettara Kavikal’ is famous.
58. Poonam Namboothiri is the half poet of ‘Pathinettara Kavikal’.
59. The Nair soldiers were called as ‘Changatam’, who were appointed for protecting the wealth in temple goudons in Ancient Kerala.

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