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Nobel Prize Winners, a Brief History: 

Sweden is the country that gives Nobel Prizes. It is from 1901 onwards, the Nobel prizes started to given. Earlier, the prize is given for Peace, Literature, Chemistry, Physics and Medicine. Economics is also included in 1969. Parliament of Norway selects the Peace Nobel Prize winners. Rabindranath Tagore (1913, literature), CV Raman (1930, Physics), Har Gobind Khorana (1968, Medicine), Mother Teresa (1979, Peace), Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar (1983, Physics), Amartya Sen (1998, Economics) are the Nobel Prize winners of India. Venkat Raman Ramakrishna is the Indian Scientist who won Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 2009.

The first Person from Asia to won a Nobel Prize for economics is Amartya Sen in 1998. Frederic Passy and Henry Dunant are the first nobel peace prize winners, who are the founders of Redcross Society. Sully Prudhomme is the first winner of Nobel Literature and Wilhelm Rontgen is the first winner of Nobel Physics Prize. Linus Pauling was an American chemist who won Nobel Prize twice without any Price Share. Marie Curie was a physicist and was the first winner of first Nobel Prize in 1903 in Physics. She also got Nobel Prize for chemistry in 1911. She won the prizes in two categories – Physics and Chemistry. John Bardeen won Nobel Prize twice in the same category, Physics. Frederick Sanger won for Chemistry. William Lawrence Bragg got Nobel Prize in Physics. He was an agriculturalscientist who won nobel prize.
The first telecast of Film in the world was in Paris in March 22 1895. Edwin S. Porter is called as the father of Story Films. David Griffith is called as the father of Modern Cinema. The French born, brothers Auguste Lumiere and Louis Lumiere were the founders of modern cinema. The first silent film is a “A trip to moon” directed by Georges Melies in 1902. The Battleship Potemkin is a Russian movie directed by Sergei Eisenstein in 1925.  The movie Bicycle Thieves was directed by Vittorio De Sica in 1948 in Italy. Akira Kurosawa directed the japan movie, Rashomon. Ben Kingsley acted in the role of Gandhi in the movie, Gandhi. Richard Attenborough is the director of Gandhi. Shyam Benegal is the director of “Making of Mahatma”. Gandhi role in Making of Mahatma is acted by Rajat Kapoor. 

Hollywood city is called as the Mecca of World Cinema. California of America is called as the capital of world cinema. Walt Disney is the father of Cartoon Movies. The first voice film is Jazz Singer released in 1927. Becky Sharp released in 1935 is the first color cinema of world. The Robe released in 1953 is the first cinemascope movie. Bwana Devil released in 1952 is the first 3D cinema of the world. Can Festival in France is the world’s biggest film festival. Aishwarya Rai became the jury of Can Festival. Can Festival started in 1946. Daniel Radcliffe is the actor of Harry Potter Movie. Emil Jannings for the movie, “The Way of all flash” is the first actor to win Oscar Award. The first actress to win Oscar award is Janet Gaynor for 7th Heaven.
Indian Cinema History: India is the country where most of the films released compared to other countries. It was in 1896, the first Indian film screened. Lumier Brothers screened the film in Watson’s hotel of Mumbai. About six silent films were screened for first time in India. Pundalik is the first film released in India. The movie Pundalik was released in 1912. The film was produced by Dadasaheb Torne. The first Indian cinema which completely shoots in India is Raja Harishchandra. Dhundiraj Govind Phalke is the producer of the movie that released in 1931. He is fondly called as the Dadasaheb Phalke. He is also called as the father of Indian Cinema. Keechaka Vadham released in 1918 is the first film produced by Rangaswamy Natarahja Muthaliar. The earlier movies around the years, 1990s and 1930s were silent movies. The first sound film is Alam Aara released in 1931. Ardeshir Irani directed the film. The first cinema released with background music is Chandidas in 1932. Also the Bhagya Chakra (1935) a Bengali feature film directed by Nitin Bose released with songs. Kisan Kanya is the first color cinema of India released in 1937. Dadasaheb Phalke Award is the highest honour given by Indian Government. It was from 1969, the Phalke Award given for respected film personalities. Devika Rani Roerich got the first Phalke Award. She is also called as the Lady of Indian Cinema. The only malayalee who won Phalke Award is Adoor Gopalakrishnan in 2004. The blockbuster movie shown in record days is Dilwale Dulhania Le Jayenge. The Hindi Film, Sholay is the film which runs for more than 5 years in a single theatre called “Minerva cinema”. Ramesh Sippy is the director of Sholay movie.

The movie Indra Sabha holds the record of a film having most songs (71 songs). MGR and NTR are the persons who became the chief minister of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh respectively after acting the actor’s role in the films. Janaki Ramachandran and Jayalalitha are the actresses who became Chief Ministers. It was in 1954, the national awards started to give. Shivaji Rao Gaikwad is the original name of actor Rajinikanth. Satyajit Ray is the world famous director born in Bengal. Pather Panjali is the most popoular film directed by him. The actress Nargis Dutt is called as the “First Women of Indian Cinema”. She is the first women to get Padmashree Award. Fatima Rashid is the original name of Nargis Dutt. She is the first women to get national award for best actress. She is also first women actress to get a nomination in Rajya Sabha. The Nargis Dutt Award is given for Best Feature Film on National Integration. The state with the most number of cinema halls in India is Andhra Pradesh. The world’s largest cinema studio is Ramoji Film City. It is located at Hyderabad of Andhra Pradesh. The first 3D Film of India is My Dear Kuttichattan. Bhanu Athaiyais the first Oscar award winner in India. She got the award for best Costume Designer in the movie “Gandhi” in 1982. It was in 1992, the Satyajit Ray got the special Oscar award.

It was from 1954, the national award started to given. The first golden lotus award for best feature film is given to Shyamchi Aai. Shyamchi Aai is directed by P K Atre. Neelakuyil from Malayalam got the silver lotus award for the second best film. It was from the year 1968, the national award for Best Actor, Best Actress started to given. Uttam Kumar is the first best actor. Seetha is the first international award winning movie. It was in 1952, the international award started to given. Goa is the venue. Golden Peacock Awards for best Movie and best new director. Mumbai is the head quarters of Film Division. It was founded in 1948. It was in Pune, the national film archive of india started its working in 1964. Film and Television institute of India started at Pune.

Central Board of Film Certification (CBFC) started in 1952. Mumbai is its head quarters and it is also called Censor Board. They gave the certificates, U, U/A, A, S. U is given to family movies. U/A is given for watching the people above 12 years old. A is given for watching above 18 years old and the S certificate is given for watching doctors and other specialties. The National film development corporation came into existence in 1975. There are six silent films screened for the general public in 1896. They are The Zeebath Award, Arrival of a tries, A Demolition, Ladies and Soldiers on wheels, Entry of Cinematography and the Lining the Factory. The first Division Started it’s working in 1948 January. Mumbai is its Head Quarters. Children’s film society came into existence in 1955. The Konidala Siva Sankara Vara Prasad is the Original name of Chiranjeevi. Prithviraj Kapoor is the first film actor who nominated to Rajya Sabha.

Kerala Cinema History: First Malayalam Cinema – Vigathakumaran (released in 1928, directed by JC Daniel). Balan is the first Malayalam film directed by S. Nottani in 1938. The second movie of Malayalam is Marthanda Varma released in 1933. The Kandam Becha Kottu is the first colour film in Malayalam. TR Sundaram. Jnanambika is the second sound movie of Malayalam. JC Daniel is called as the father of Malayalam Cinema. The first Malayalam film that got National Award is Neelakuyil. It got Silver Medal from the Indian President. Neelakuyil was directed by Ramu Kariat and P Bhaskaran. The first Malayalam film to get Gold Medal from President is Chemeen. Chemeen was directed by Ramu Kariat and it released in 1965. The first malayalee to win national award for best screenplay writer is SL Puram Sadhanandhan for the movie Agniputri. Sarada in 1968 for the movie, Thulabharam got a national award for best actress. She was also the first women to get a national ward from Kerala. It was in 1969; the kerala film award is established. Kumarasambhavam in 1969 directed by P Subramaniam got the best state film award. Kerala State film Development Corporation (KSFDC) is formed in 1925. The first cinemascope film of kerala is Thacholi Ambu in 1978. The first 70 mm film of Malayalam is Padayottom released in 1982. Prem Nazir (Abdul Khader) is the Malayalam actor who acted in most no: of films. Sukumari is the Malayalam actress who acted in most Malayalam films. Monisha Unni for the film Nakhashatangal got best actress award. She is the youngest actor to get that award in India. Malabar Riots is the base of the movie “1921”.

Mathilukal, directed by Adoor Gopalakrishnan in 1989 is the film which has no female roles. Prem Nazir is the actor who acted in a record number of films and thereby included in the Guinness World Records. Vaikom Muhammad Basheer has written the story of Mathilukal. The renowned poet G. Sankara Kurup had written the lyrics for songs in the movie, Nirmala. PC Kuttikrishnan, popularly called as Uroob is famous in writting short stories. MG Sreekumar is the writer of Oru Vadakkan Veeragatha. P Kunhananandan Nair better known in the name of Thikodiyan wrote the story of Uttarayanam. Madhavikutti is the screenplay writer of the movie “Rukmani”. The first dolby stereo film of Malayalam is Kalapani. The first box-office hit of Malayalam film is Jeevitha Nouka. Vayalar Ramavarma acted in the movie “Chettathi”. KS Chitra is fondly called as the Nightingale of South India. The cinematography of Chemeen is done by Marcus Bartley.

Kalpadukal is the movie in which Yesudas first sang a song. Agraharathil Kazhutai is the first tamil film directed by John Abraham. G Aravindan is the director of movie “Vasthuhara”. DN Menon is the director of movie “Olavum Theeravum”. The first independent film studio of Kerala is Udhaya in Alappuzha. Felix JH Beyas of Germany is the director of movie “Vellinakshatram” in 1949. Piravi is the Malayalam film which got most of the National Awards in 1988. It was directed by Shaji N Karun. PJ Antony is the first Malayalam actor to get national award for best actor in the movie, Nirmalyam in 1973. Balan K Nair got the national award for best actor in the movie Oppol (Elder Sister released in 1980). Adoor Gopalakrishnan got national award for five times. Chitchor is the Hindi film where yeshudas got national award for singer in 1976. The first Malayalam film where yeshudas got the first national award for singer is “Achanum Bappayum” in 1972. Chitralekha Film Society is the first film society of Kerala. The 3-D film from India is My Dear Kuttichathan (1984).


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