Human Evolution and Migration

ORIGIN OF SPECIES: Charles Robert Darwin, a Britain born English naturalist and geologist who was known as the Father of Evolution. He traveled around the world in his ship “HMS Beagle” from 1831 to 1836 to find the secret behind Human Evolution. Darwin published his findings of theory of evolution through the book “On the Origin of Species” written by him in 1859. The core of these ideas was the idea of evolution by natural selection. His Theory primarily states about the following concepts.

According to Darwin Theory, Organisms will produce Variations under Nature in which they adapt their characteristics which may be due to both behavior or genetic. Competition between organisms is common in the nature for existence and hence the Struggle for Existence.  Through Natural Selection (Survival of the Fittest), Organisms that vary with the adaptations of nature will exist and others exiles. These variations will go through the generations and consecutively the adaption.

Archaeology: Archaeology is the branch of science that deals with the study of human activity in ancient times. It is mainly done through the recovery and study of the material culture and ecological data that they have left.

Carbon Dating: Carbon dating otherwise called as radioactive dating is technique used today to find the age of fossils or organic materials founded.

Taxonomy: Taxonomy is a branch of science that includes the portrayal, identification, nomenclature, and classification of Organisms.

Homo Sapiens: The scientific name of Modern Human is Homo sapiens. It is believed that the modern man was evolved at about 2 lakh years ago in Eastern Africa. Hominids are species that have similar features to Humans.


Homo sapiens Taxonomy:

1. First living beings: Through the process of Abiogenesis 3.5 billion years ago.
2. Chordates (530 million years ago):
3. Tetrapods (390 million years ago):
4.  Mammals (256 million years ago):
5. Primates (85 million years ago):
6. Hominidae (15 million years ago):
      1. Hominidae - 15 million years ago
      2. Homininae - 13 million years ago
      3. Pan Genus (Chimpanzees And Bonobos From Ancestors Gorillas) - 10 million years ago
      4. Hominina - 7 million years ago
      5. Ardipithecus - 4.4 million years ago
      6. Australopithecus Afarensis - 3.6 million years ago
      7. Kenyanthropus platyops - 3.5 million years ago
      8. Australopithecines - 3 million years ago
7. Homo (2.5 million years ago):
      1. Homo habilis - 2.5 million years ago
      2. Homo erectus evolves in Africa - 1.8 million years ago
      3. Homo antecessor - 1.2 million years ago
      4. Homo Heidelbergensis – 6 lakh years ago
      5. Neanderthal (Sub Species of Homo)– 6 lakh years ago
      6. Y-Chromosomal Adam – 3.38 lakh years ago
      7. Omo1, Omo2 (Ethiopia, Omo river) -  2 lakh years ago
      8. Homo sapiens – 1.6 lakh years ago
      9. Mitochondrial Eve – 1.5 lakh years ago
    10. Cro-Magnon – 40000 years ago
    11. Neanderthal Extinction – 25000 years ago
    12. Homo Floresiensis – 12000 years ago


Turkana Boy Fossil: Turkana Boy is a complete skeleton of a hominid, which is said to be lived at about 1.5 million years. Upon recent studies it was put under the class, Homo Ergaster. It is the also said to be the oldest fossil found up to date.

Ida Fossil: Most of the evolution studies are based on the fossils found. The fossil Ida was discovered in 1983 at Messel in Germany. It belongs to the species Darwinius Masillae of Primates, and is said to be lived in the earth at about 47 million years ago. It is believed that this primate is said to be became a major role for the evolution of Human and other organisms.

Pithecanthropus: The early fossil of Hominid discovered in 1891 on the banks of Solo River in East Java in Indonesia is named as Java Man. That species came under the Hominid, Pithecanthropus.

Peking man: The fossil of Sinanthropus Pekinensis similar to Java man otherwise called Peking man is found in China.

Neanderthal: The fossils of Neanderthals were discovered from Neanderthal Valley in Germany. It is believed that Cro Magnon was the follower of Neanderthal and was found in Cro Magnon caves in France. Cro Magnon practiced Drawing and Paintings in Cave walls.

Grimaldi Man: The fossils of Grimaldi man were found in France.

Ramapithecus: Ramapithecus were discovered in 1932 in fossil deposits in the Siwalik Hills of northern India at about 8 million years ago.

Australopithecus: Australopithecus evolved in eastern Africa around 4 million years ago which is similar to Hominids are believed to be stand straight with upright and also straight-legged walking.


The Three-age system of archaeology which is considered in the development of Human is Bronze Age, Iron Age and Stone Age.

Stone Age - 3.4 million years to 6000 BCE and 2000 BCE:

Human founded fire in Stone Age. Also the Axe, Soil Pottery and construction of home is said to be happened in Old Stone Age. Agriculture, Domestication of Animals and Production of Clothes is said to be started in Neolithic Age and is called as Neolithic Revolution. It is also called as New Stone age. Invention of the Wheel is said to be landmark in the history of Human Development and it happened in the end of Neolithic Age. Barter System emerged in Neolithic age is a way exchanging things for things. Here people will sell goods or services directly for getting their needed goods. There is no medium of exchange like money as today in Barter system.

Bronze Age - 3600 BC to 1200 BC:

The weapons and tools made from copper and stones were used largely in Chalcolithic Age. It is also called as Copper & Stone Age, which is a phase of the Bronze Age. Copper was the first metal mined and crafted by man. The main Bronze Age Cultures are Egypt, Mesopotamia, Harappa, Indus Valley and Chinese Civilization. It was during the Bronze Age, Invention of Plough, Sales of products and also the formation of towns occurred. Merchants, Armies, Farmers, Craftsmen were formed in the society and their trade based divisions is also happened in Bronze Age.

Iron Age - 1200 BC to 500 BC:

The main Iron Age Cultures are Vedic Culture in India and Greek – Roman Culture.


01. The Paleolithic Era between the years 200,000 BC - 25,000 BC.
02. The Mesolithic Era between the years 20,000 BC to 10,000 BC.
03. The Neolithic Era between the years 10,000 BC to 5,500 BC.
04. The Chalcolithic Era between the years 5,000 BC – 2500 BC
05. The Bronze Era between the years 3600 BC - 1200 BC.
06. The Iron Era between the years 1200 BC – 500 BC.

Races of Modern Man:

Mongoloid, Negrito and Caucasoids are the three main races of Modern Man. Negrito races are more in the continent of Africa. The Bushman was the sub group of Negrito race commonly found in the Kalahari Desert. In India, the Negrito race people can be founded in Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

Mongoloid people were mostly found in the regions of China, Japan, Korea and other countries in the South East Asia.  Eskimo is a sub group of Mongoloid who are local peoples who have traditionally settled in the circumpolar region of Earth. Igloos were the houses built from Ice by Eskimos. Most of the people of world belong to Mongoloid race.  It is believed that Zinjanthropus found the weapons for first time and is believed to be lived at about 2 million years ago in East Africa.


Human Migrations started as early as when Homo erectus first migrated out from Africa to Eurasia which is about 18 lakh years ago. The development of Homo erectus to Homo antecessor consecutively take place and they reached Europe at about 8 lakh years ago. Homo antecessor is then followed by Heidelbergensis where they most likely progressed to become the Neanderthals (6 lakh years ago). Homo sapiens (scientific name for the human species) developed in Africa at around 2 lakh years ago migrated to Near East at about 1.25 lakh years ago. From Near East, these people spread to various part of the world. They reached South Asia (including India) by 50,000 years ago and in Australia they reached by 40,000 years ago. They reached Europe at about 43,000 years ago and thus replaced Neanderthal Population. They reached Central Asia at around 40,000 years ago. There is no clear evidence on date of migration to North America. It may be between 30,000 to 40,000 years ago.