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PSC Class 13: Famous Personalities of World History

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1. Abraham Lincoln: Abraham Lincoln is the president of America during the Civil War in between 1861 – 1865. The civil war is the biggest problem faced in administration of American History. He is the 16th president of America. Lincoln was born in Kentucky in 1809 February 12. Lincoln became the president in 1860 as a contestant of Republican Party. He had the nickname ‘Rail Splitter’. Lincoln travelled by train to reach Washington for taking pledge as president. The main reason for civil war in American administration is the unconcern of southern states in abolishing slavery. The famous statement of Lincoln about Democracy is ‘Government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from earth’. This statement was made during a speech made in 1863 November 19 at Pennsylvania during Civil War.
Lincoln  was shot to death in Ford Theatre of Washington while seeing a play called ‘Our American Cousin’ in 1865 April 14 by a person called John Wilkes Booth.

2. Karl Marx: Karl Marx was born in 1818 May 5 in Trier town of West Germany. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels released the work “Communist Manifesto” in Brussels of Belgium in 1848. Marx formed the International Workingmen’s Association in London in 1864, which is called as First International. The popular work “Das Capital” of Karl Marx was released in 1867. The script was written in German language. He died at London in 1883. The inscription on Marx’s tomb of High gate Cemetery is “Workers of All Lands Unite!".

3. Lenin: Lenin led the October Revolution in 1917, who was the establisher of Russian Communist Party. Lenin was born in Simbirsk in 1870 April 22. The original name of Lenin is Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov. Lenin became the ruler of Soviet Russia in 1917 November 8. Cheka is the police came into existence under the leadership of Lenin’s administration for defending political enemies. In 1921, Lenin introduced a New Economic Policy. USSR came into existence in 1922 December under Lenin. In 1921 January 21, upon brain damage (stroke), he died. The main work of Lenin is “April Theses”.

4. Ho chi minh: Ho chi minh was the leader of Vietnamese struggles against the colonial rule of French. He is also the president of Northern Vietnamese until 1954. He is also called in the name, ‘Nguyen the Patriot’. He died at 1969. In memory of Ho chi minh, the Saigon city of Southern Vietnam is renamed to Ho Chi Minh City in 1975.

5. Martin Luther King Junior: Martin Luther King Junior is the Nobel Prize winner for peace in 1964, who struggled for the rights of Black people of America. The popular speech made by Junior Martin Luther King in front of Lincoln memorial started with words ‘I have a Dream’. Martin Luther King was shot to death by a person called James Earl Ray in 1968 April 4
The measure of a man, strength to love, why we can’t wait, the trumpet of conscience were the famous works of him.

6. Newton: The important year of scientific life in which Issac Newton contributed most to science was 1667. The theory of gravity and theory of light became a major turning point in Physical Science. The three famous laws of motion were developed by Newton just after elected as Fellow of Trinity College in Cambridge of England. The famous work of Newton, ‘Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy’ was released in 1687.

7. Winston Churchill: Sir Winston Churchill is the prime minister who led Britain to victory in Second World War. He got Nobel Prize for Literature in 1953.
The most popular speech made by Winston Churchill in British parliament after becoming prime minister  in 1940 May 13 is started with lines “I have nothing to offer but blood, toil, tears and sweat”. During the periods, ‘1940 - 1945’, ‘1951 - 1955’, Churchill was Prime Minister. He belongs to Conservative Party. Churchill made the statement, “Iron Curtain” about Soviet Union. Churchill is the person who mentioned Gandhi as ‘Half Naked Fakir’.
The major works of Churchill is “The Second World War, The story of Malakand Field Force, The River War, For Free Trade, The World Crisis, Step by Step, Into Battle, The End of the Beginning, A History of the English Speaking Peoples, The Unwritten Alliance”

8. Einstein: The famous Photo Electric Effect and Theory of Relativity were published by Einstein in 1905. He was born in 1879 in Germany. Einstein got Nobel Prize for Physical Science in 1921. Einstein got prize for his study on Photo Electric Effect. He got Swiss citizenship in 1901. In 1933, Einstein migrated to America from Germany. In 1940, he accepted American Citizenship. Einstein made foundation for Quantum Theory and Special Theory of Relativity. The famous equation, e = mc2 is a golden feather on Einstein’s cap, which is one among famous equation in scientific theories. The equation can be used for converting matter into energy. Einstein died at Princeton hospital in 1955 April 18.

9. John F Kennedy: John F Kennedy was born in 1917 May 29 in Brooklyn of Massachusetts. Kennedy became the Democratic candidate for the election of American President in 1960. Kennedy became the 35th president of America in 1961 January 20. It was Kennedy, who sent US Army to Vietnam. Kennedy was shot to death by a person called Lee Harvey Oswald during his visit in Texas for some political meeting in 1963 November 22. This Oswald is shot to death by a person called Jack Ruby, while he was shifting to prison in the second day after murdering Kennedy.

10. Adolf Hitler: Hitler was born in Braunau Am Inn near German boundary of Austria in 1889 April 20. In order to escape from the compulsory service in Austro – Hungarian army in 1913, Hitler moved to Munich of Germany. In 1923, during a coup attempt in Munich, Hitler was jailed. In the jail, he had written his biography ‘Mein Kampf’. Hitler became the German Chancellor in 1933. In 1934, Hitler himself considered as ‘Fuhrer’. The bad days of Hitler started with his attack on Soviet Union. In Stalingrad war, the red army defeated Germany. In 1944, the Axis powers almost accepted defeat in world war. In 1945 April 30, the red army successfully reached in front of doors of Hitler’s abode, there Hitler and his wife suicide. Hitler married Eva Braun while in hiding in Bunker.

11. Mao Tse Tung: It was Mao Tse Tung, who led the struggles for establishing china, a communist country. The administration of china was under the control of Mao Tse Tung from 1949 to 1976. In order, to take the control of Chinese administration from Kuomintang, Mao Tse Tung along with his followers led the Red Army Long March in 1934 October. In 1949, the administration of the land china came under the control of Red Army of Mao. Mao accepted the Great Leap Forward Policy in 1958 for bigger development in Agricultural and Trade sectors of china.
He established the cultural revolution in china during the period ‘1966 to 1976’. ‘Hundred Flowers Campaign’ was held during the period ‘1956 to 1957’ in china. It was Mao, who said the words “Political power grows out of the barrel of a gun”. Mao died in 1976 September 2.
The notable works of Mao were Little Red Book, Red Treasure Book, On Contradiction, On New Democracy, Serve the People, The foolish old man who removed the mountains.

12. Benito Mussolini: Mussolini was born in Forli of Italy in 1883 July 29. Mussolini created political problems in Switzerland in 1902 and was jailed. Mussolini introduced the ‘Fascism’ in Italian Politics and formed the Fascist Party in 1921. Under the leadership of Mussolini in 1922, Fascists organized a big revolt against government. Afterwards, Mussolini became the least aged prime minister in Italian history. The allied agreement signed by Mussolini and Hitler in 1936 is called as ‘Pact of Steel’. Mussolini lost his power in 1943. In 1945 April 27, communist army killed Mussolini in 1945 April 27.

13. Saddam Hussein: Saddam Hussein was the Iraq President from 1979 to 2003 April. He was the leader of Baath party. Saddam was captured by American Army in 2003 December. He was hanged to death in 2006 December.

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