PSC Class 82: Puranas in India

1. Rig Veda, Yajur Veda, Sama Veda and Atharva Veda were the four vedas. It was from Rig Veda, we get the information of arrival of Aryans and their lifestyle. Vedas wrote in Sanskrit language. Rig Veda is the oldest veda, whereas the largest veda is Atharva Veda.

2. Rigveda starts with the line ‘Agnimeele Purohitam’. The famous ‘Gayathri Mantra’ is said in Rig Veda. The starting line of Gayatri Mantra is ‘Om tat saviturvareniyam ’.

3. There are 1028 stotras in Rig Veda. It consists of 10 Mandalas. It was in the ‘Purusha Sukta’ of 10th mandala of Rig Veda, about the four races of India is mentioned.

4. Rig Veda is the first work written in Indo European language. Max Mullar translated Rig Veda to English. Vallathol translated Rig Veda to Malayalam.

5. Sama Veda is related to music. Yajur Veda is about the rituals and sacrifices of Aryans.

6. Atharva Veda is believed to be not the veda of Aryans. Ayurveda is the sub veda of Atharva Veda.

7. ‘War begins in the minds of men’ is the words of Atharva Veda.

8. The ‘Upanishads’ related with vedas is called as ‘Vedantam’. There are 108 Upanishads.

9. ‘Brihadaranyaka Upanishad is the biggest and ‘Ishavasyam’ is the smallest.

10. ‘Tatvamasi’ is the words from ‘Chandogya Upanishad’ and ‘Sathyameva Jayate’ is from ‘Mundaka Upanishad’.

11. Ramayana and Mahabharata were the epics of India. Ramayana is the most oldest epic, whereas Mahabharatha is the largest epic.

12. There are 18 parvas in Mahabharat, whereas Ramayana has 7 kandas. Valmiki is the author of Ramayana. Veda Vyasa is the author of Mahabharata.

13. ‘Jayasamhita’ and ‘Satasahasri Samhita’ were the other names of Mahabharata.

14. The famous ‘Aditya Hridayamantra’ was from Ramayana and ‘Bhagavat Gita’ was from Mahabharata.

15. Bhagavat Gita is called as the ‘Soul of Mahabharata’. Bhagavat Gita mentions the slogas from 25 to 45 of Bhishma Parva.

16. Mahabharata war was ended in 18th day.

17. Major Puranas – 18, Upapuranas – 18

18. Skanda Purana is the largest.

19. Satya Yuga, Treta Yuga, Dwapara Yuga and Kali Yuga were the four yugas based on Indian beliefs.

20. The lengthiest yuga is Satya Yuga. Kali Yuga is shortest.

21. Charles Wilkins translated Bhagavat Gita to English. The translation of Mahabharata in Malayalam was done by Kodungallur Kunjikuttan Thampuran.

22. There are 14 Manu. Vamana, Parashuram, Rama were the incarnations in Treta Yuga.

23. Balarama and Sree Krishna were the incarnations in Dwapara Yuga.

24. Mahabharata is called as ‘Fifth Veda’. The translation of Mahabharata to English was done by William John.

25. Dhanur Veda, Gandharva Veda, Shilpa Veda and Ayur Veda were called as Upa vedas.

26. The analysis debate (Nyaya) of Indians is ‘India Logic’. Gautama was its author.

27. The Vaisheshika (Atom’s character) which is also called as ‘Indian Atomism’ was the work of Kanadan. ‘Yoga Darshana’ was the work of Patanjali.

28. It was Bada rayana (Vyasa), who is considered as the author of Vedanta Darshan.

29. Gautama Padar, who was the teacher of Shankaracharya is the author of Advaita Vedanta Darshan. ‘Advaita Vedanta’ is considered as the ‘Complete of all Indian Philosophies’. Shankaracharya propagated the Advaita Philosophy.

30. Shankaracharya is considered as ‘Modern Buddha’. Padma Padar is the main student of Shankaracharya.

31. ‘Vishishtadvaita Siddhanda’ was from Ramanuja.

32. Brihaspati is the author of Charvaka Darshana, which said the lines ‘Eat, Drink, Enjoy’.