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PSC Class 118: Foreigners in Ancient Kerala

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1. The Marumakkatayam system of Kerala was first explained by Friar Jordan who visited Kollam in AD 1324.
2. The Portuguese were the first Europeans to reach Kerala by Ocean. It was under the leadership of Vasco Da Gama in 1498 May 20, first Portuguese troop reached Kapad near to Kozhikode.
3. The second expedition of the Portuguese to Kerala was led by Pedro Alvares Cabral. He reached Cochin in 1500. Vasco Da Gama visited Kerala for second time in 1502.
4. Francisco d’Almeida was the first Viceroy of the Portuguese in India. He reached Kerala in AD 1505. In order to attain supremacy in India, Portuguese built St Angelo Fort in Kannur.
5. The first fort built by Europeans in India is Fort Manual of Kochi. Portuguese built this fort and the construction of this fort was completed in December 1503.
6. Albuquerque (1509 - 1515) is the second Portuguese viceroy. During his period, the headquaters of Portuguese is shifted to Goa from Kochi. He promoted the mixed marriage between Portuguese and Indians.
7. Vasco Da Gama reached Kerala for third time in 1524. This time, he reached with the title of Portuguese Viceroy. He died at Kochi in December 24.
8. Kunjali Marakkars opposed the Portuguese.  They led the wars against Portuguese.
9. Kunjali Marakkars were the traditional naval commanders of Zamorin.
10. Fourth and the last Kunjali was Muhammed Kunjali. He adopted the titles ‘‘King of the Moors’ and ‘Lord of the Indian Seas’.
11. In 1600, Kunjali IV was captured by the Zamorin and he was executed by the Portuguese at Goa.
12. The local name of Portuguese was ‘Parangikal’ and Dutch was ‘Lanthakar’.
13. The ‘‘Tuhafat-ul-Mujahideen’ of Sheik Zainuddin is the work that mentions Portuguese people’s wickedness in Kerala. It explains the imperialisation of Portuguese in kerala between the period, 1498 to 1583. The script was submitted to Bijapur Sultan Adil Shak.
14. Portuguese established scientific agricultural methods in Kerala. They imported good seed coconuts to kerala from aboard. They extended the coir trade to aboard. Cashew Nut, areca-nut, Pappaya, Guava, Pineapple, water melon etc was imported by Portuguese.
15. Portuguese spread the European weapons and war techniques in kerala. It was by the Portuguese, who developed the chief art form of kerala called ‘Chavittu nadakam’.
16. It was due to malayalee’s relation with Portuguese, Malayalam language got the words Lelam, Mesthiri, Kushini, Chavi, Randhal, Jannal, Verantah, Vijagiri, Alamara, Konta, Kumbasaram, Vikari, Mesha, Kasera, Bench, Chaya, Factory, Muram, Patakam, Goudon.
17. The arabi-persian words that got to malayalam language due to relation with Arabs were Kathu, Hajer, Vakeel, Vakalath, Gumastan, Nakkal, Tehsildar, Taluk, Kasba, Mamool, Japti, Vasool, Keesha, Kacheri, Ushar, Bejar etc.
18. Dutch East India Company was formed in 1602. Admiral Steven Van Der Hagen was the first Dutch Admiral to reach Kerala (Calicut). He arrived Kozhikode at 1604 and entered into an alliance with the Zamorin of Calicut.
19. Portuguese built a palace in Mattancherry for Kochi king, Vira Kerala Varma in 1555. In 1663, Dutch reconstructed this palace. Afterthat it is known in the name of Dutch Palace.
20. Dutch People built a palace at Bolgatti Island of Kochi in 1744. Now it is known as Bolgatty Palace.
21. The Colachel war in 1741 is the incident that makes big fall for Dutch power. In the famous battle fought at Kulachal, the forces of Marthanda varma defeated the Dutch and captured the dutch army leader, D’Lannoy, who later became the ‘Valiyakappithan’ of Marthanda Varma’s army.
22. Mavelikara Treaty was between Dutch and Marthanda Varma in 1753. According to this treaty, Dutch accepted the demand from Travancore that they did not enter into local region administration and also will not make any treat with travancore’s enemies.
23. It was by the Dutch, who produced Salt from the Uppalam in the coastal regions. They also spread the technique of coloring.
24. The presence of dutch people made good changes in the field of Garden creation, furniture production and utensils production. Most important contribution of Dutch to Kerala is the monumental work, Hortus Malabaricus. It was compiled under the patronage of Admiral Van Rheede.
25. The ‘Pantakasalai’ was established in Mayyazhi by French in 1722.
26. The two trade centers of Denmark in Kerala were Kulachal and Idava.
27. First Englishman who came to Kerala was perhaps Master Ralph Fitch. He is known as ‘‘Pioneer Englishman’’ (1583).
28. The first englishman who reached Kerala as a part of trade is Captain Keeling in 1615.
29. According to Srirangapattanam treaty between British and Tipu Sultan in 1792, British got Malabar.
30. Malabar Manual is the work prepared by William Logan in 1887, who earlier worked as Magistrate of Malabar, Judge and District Collector in between an interval of 20 years. It mentions about the geography, people, living style, language, culture, religion, castes and so on.

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