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Showing posts from March, 2021

Great Philosophers and their Contributions

Here are a list of great philosophers of world and their contributions as follows. Thales (625-546 BC) Founder of Greek philosophy, Thales was born in Miletus, Asia Minor. He was a scholar in astrology that he predicted the eclipse of the sun, occured in 585 BC. He stated that the original principle of everything is water and everything begins and ends in water. Thales is one among the Seven Wise Men of Greece. Pythagoras (570-500 BC) Pythagoras was a Greek philosopher and mathematician born on the island of Samos. He founded a movement known as pythagoreanism, aiming at the development of religion, politics and philosophy. It was Pythagoras who considered earth as a globe revolving with other planets around a central ball of fire. Confucius (551-479 BC) The Chinese philosopher confucius was born in the state of Lu. He taught the principles and precepts of the sages and great men of ancient classics. After the age of 50, he became the minister of crime of Lu. During his reign crime

Freedom Fighters of India and their Information

Here are a list of freedom fighters of india and their contribution as follows. Veluthampi Dalawa (1765-1809) An illustrious son of Travancore, Veluthampi was the Da!awa (chief among ministers in the Travancore royal cabinet). Leading a people's struggle, Veluthampi came out with a public announcement (Kundara Proclamation) against the white rulers. He decided not to give into the British arrogance, killed himself at a temple in Mannadi. Tatya Tope (1814-1859) Tatya Tope was a prominent martyr who gave up life for the mother land. He was Nana Saheb's army chief and an expert in guerilla warfare. He led the war against the British and captured many forts back from the British. He was held captive and hanged to death by the British. Nana Saheb (1824-1859) History has it that India's first efforts to gain independence from the British were spearheaded by great men like Nana Saheb. His fight against the British gained in strength, but he was overcome by the British.

Social Reformers in India and their Contribution

A list of Social Reformers in India and their Contribution are given below Sree Sankara (AD 788-820) Sree Sankara popularly known as Sankaracharya was born at Kalady in Kerala. His interpretation of Vedas and Hindu spirituality based on 'adwaida' gave a new orientation to the diminishing Hindu religion. Then he travelled all over India by foot and lit the lamp of awakening in society. He founded religious centres called 'mut' at different parts of India. This great saint breathed his last at the age of 32. Kabir (1440-1518) Philosopher, religious critic and a devotional poet, born in 1440. Weaving was his livelihood. Kabir propagated his ideals gained from social experience through his lyrics. He spread the virtues of Hindu-Muslim religions. He was renowned by the name Mystic Poet. Beejak, Aadigrandham, Kabir vachanavali etc. were some of his great works. He died in 1518. Guru Nanak (1469-1539) Founder of Sikhism. Born at Rai Bhoi di Talvandi near Lahore in a merc

Greatest Monarchs of India

Greatest Monarchs of India are listed below. Ashoka (304 BC - 232 BC)   The last emperor of Maurya dynasty, Ashoka was a patron of Buddhism. He helped a lot in the expansion of Buddhism throughout the country. In addition to his preachings Ashoka made the people known Buddhism by beautifully engraving the teachings on rocks and pillars fixed at suitable sites. These inscriptions are known as Rock Edicts. Ashoka conquered almost all the neighbouring countries and widened his empire. After the Kalinga war in the eighth year of his reign he was moved by the sufferings of the defeated people and thus withdrawn from armed conquests. Thereafter he led people along the path of dharma. Ashoka made many reforms for public utility.   Shivaji (1630-1680)   The founder of Maratha dynasty, Sivaji was a brave soldier and an ardent statesman. By the age of 19, he became a soldier, who was admired by the common people. He worked for the freedom of Hindus from the oppression and religious p

10 Diseases caused by Bacteria in Humans

10 Diseases caused by Bacteria in Humans Diphtheria It is a severe, contagious infection of the upper respiratory system or the skin. It can involve serious or even fatal complications. During the late 1800’s, diphtheria epidemics swept the Western Europe and the United States. At that time, most victims were under 10 years of age. Today, diphtheria affects children and adults about equally. Widespread immunization with diphtheria vaccines has greatly reduced the number of cases of diphtheria. Tuberculosis Tuberculosis  often called TB is an infectious disease that affects the lungs but can also affect other organs. Once this disease became the most ranked among the deaths in the world. Today the development of science, diagnosis, medicine and treatment reduced the number of people from the disease and also from deaths. But still today, tuberculosis remains a major concern in poor countries due to lack of better treatment. People of all ages suffers Tuberculosis but are most comm

7th Group Elements in Periodic Table

7th Group Elements does not have a trivial name. The 7th group elements in periodic table include manganese, technetium, rhenium and bohrium. They are explained below. Manganese – What is It? ■ Symbol – Mn ■ Electron Configuration – [Ar] 3d 5 4s 2 ■ Atomic Number – 25 ■ Atomic Weight – 54.938 Manganese is a chemical element with the symbol Mn. The origin of name of Manganese is from the Latin word 'magnes', which means magnet and is also said to be derived from the name of black magnesium oxide called magnesia nigra. It is a brittle, silver-grey metal. Manganese has atomic weight of 54.938 and its atomic number is 25. Manganese is a plentiful element that is found throughout much of the earth's crust. However, the metal occurs only in combination with other chemical elements. Minerals that contain large amounts of manganese include braunite, hausmannite, manganite, psilomelane and pyrolusite. Manganese was first isolated as a pure metal in 1774 by Johan Gott

6th Group Elements in Periodic Table

6th Group Elements does not have a trivial name. The 6th group elements in Periodic Table include Chromium, Molybdenum, Tungsten and Seaborgium. They are explained below. Chromium - What is It? ■ Symbol – Cr ■ Electron Configuration – [Ar] 3d 5 4s 1 ■ Atomic Number – 24 ■ Atomic Weight – 51.9961 Chromium is a steely-grey, radiant, hard and brittle metal. Because of its anti-corrosive properties, it is used in the production of stainless steel. It is used as a metal which can be highly polished while resisting tarnishing. The origin of its name is from greek word, chroma means colour. Due to its corrosion resistance and hardness, it is valued as a high quality metal. It is commercial used in the manufacture of stainless steel and chrome plating. It is the third hardest element in earth after diamond and boron. Chromium has a high specular reflection where it reflects about 70% of visible spectrum, i.e., 90% of infrared light being reflected. It shares the most properties

Vitamins and Deficiency Diseases

The Englishman Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins is given credit for approaching the discovery of the vitamin concept when, in 1906, he determined that food contains essential ingredients beyond carbohydrates, minerals, fats, proteins and water. Hopkins shared the 1929 Nobel Prize in medicine and physiology for his discovery of growth stimulating vitamins. Polish-born Casimir funk (US) made great advances In 1912 when he hypothesized that certain diseases such as beriberi, scurvy, pellagra and rickets are caused by deficiencies of nutrients he called “vitamins”. Vitamin-A - What is It?   Elmer Vernon McCollum and Marguerite Davis, American biochemists, found Vitamin-A in butter and egg yolk in 1913. Thomas Burr Osborne (U.S.) and Lafayette Mendel (U.S.) made the discovery simultaneously, but McCollum was able to publish his and Davis' findings first. In 1915 McCollum labelled the substance “fat-soluble A”, a name changed to “Vitamin A” in 1920 by British biochemist Jack Cecil Dru

5th Group Elements in Periodic Table

5th Group Elements does not have a trivial name. The 5th group elements include vanadium, niobium, tantalum and dubnium. They are explained below. Vanadium - What is It?   ■ Symbol – V ■ Electron Configuration – [Ar] 3d 3 4s 2 ■ Atomic Number –23 ■ Atomic Weight – 50.9415   A chemical element with symbol V, is a silvery-white metallic element. It occurs throughout the earth's crust, but only in extremely small quantities. Such trace amounts of vanadium also have been found in meteorites. Vanadium is used chiefly by steel manufacturers, who produce it in the form of an iron alloy called ferrovanadium. Vanadium strengthens steel by improving both its hardness at high temperatures and its ability to withstand shock. It also makes steel resistant to corrosion. Manufacturers use this strong, rust-resistant alloy steel in producing axles, gears and springs for aeroplanes, cars and locomotives. High speed cutting tools also are made of alloy steel containing vanadium. V

Titanium Family (4th Group Elements)

Titanium Family consists of the chemical elements of Group 4 in periodic table. The 4th group elements include titanium, zirconium, hafnium, and rutherfordium. They are explained below. Titanium - What is It? ■ Symbol – Ti ■ Electron Configuration –  [Ar] 3d 2 4s 2 ■ Atomic Number – 22 ■ Atomic Weight – 47.88 Titanium is a chemical element with symbol Ti. It is a light weight, silver grey metal, its atomic number is 22 and its atomic weight is 47.88. The density of titanium lies between that of aluminium and stainless steel. It melts at 1667°C and boils at 3287°C. Titanium resists sea water and sea air corrosion. It also resists the rust as well as platinum. It is superior than stainless steel. Many highly corrosive acids and alkalies do not affect titanium. It is a ductile metal that is, it can be drawn into wire. It also has a higher strength-weight ratio than steel. All these qualities make it metal of great importance. Titanium was discovered in 1790 by the English ch

Scandium Family (3rd Group Elements)

Scandium Family consists of the chemical elements of Group 3 in periodic table. The 3rd group elements include scandium, yttrium, lutetium, and lawrencium. They are explained below. Scandium - What is It? ■ Symbol – Sc ■ Electron Configuration –  [Ar] 3d 1 4s 2 ■ Atomic Number – 21 ■ Atomic Weight – 44.95510 Scandium is a soft silvery-white metal. Its chemical symbol is Sc. It has an atomic number of 21 and an atomic weight of 44.95510. In 1869, Dmitri Mendeleev of Russia predicted its existence. In 1879, Lars Nilson of Sweden discovered it in the minerals gadolinite and euxenite. Scandium is named after Scandinavia. Scandium is found in tiny amounts in over 800 minerals but is costly to extract and has no significant use. Scandium melts at 1541°C and boils at 2831°C. It has a density of 2.989 grams per cubic centimetre at 20°C.   Lutetium - What is It? ■ Symbol – Lu ■ Electron Configuration –  [Xe] 4f 14 5d 1 6s 2 ■ Atomic Number – 71 ■ Atomic Weight – 174.96