10 Diseases caused by Bacteria in Humans

10 Diseases caused by Bacteria in Humans

Diphtheria


It is a severe, contagious infection of the upper respiratory system or the skin. It can involve serious or even fatal complications. During the late 1800’s, diphtheria epidemics swept the Western Europe and the United States. At that time, most victims were under 10 years of age. Today, diphtheria affects children and adults about equally. Widespread immunization with diphtheria vaccines has greatly reduced the number of cases of diphtheria.


Tuberculosis


Tuberculosis often called TB is an infectious disease that affects the lungs but can also affect other organs. Once this disease became the most ranked among the deaths in the world. Today the development of science, diagnosis, medicine and treatment reduced the number of people from the disease and also from deaths. But still today, tuberculosis remains a major concern in poor countries due to lack of better treatment. People of all ages suffers Tuberculosis but are most common in elders.


Whooping Cough


Whooping cough also called Pertussis, is a serious, highly contagious disease of the respiratory system. The name whooping cough comes from the whooping noise victims make when they try to catch their breath after severe coughing attacks. Whooping cough occurs worldwide, mainly among infants and young children. It is caused by a bacterium called Bordetella Pertussis. From the 1950’s through to the 1970’s, the number of cases and the severity of whooping cough declined sharply in industrial countries. These changes resulted from the wide-spread use of Pertussis vaccine and from improvements in the standard of living and in health care. In the early and mid-1980‘s, however, the percentage of young children receiving the vaccine declined. As a result, the number of cases of whooping cough began to increase.


Gonorrhoea


Gonorrhoea is a sexually transmitted disease caused by a bacterium found only in human beings. The scientific name for this bacterium is Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The bacterium is nearly always spread from person to person through intimate sexual contact. It left untreated, gonorrhoea can have serious health consequences. 


Tetanus


Tetanus is a serious disease that affects muscles. It is also called lockjaw because severe spasms of the jaw muscles make it hard for victims to open their mouths. Tetanus is affected by the toxins produced by the bacteria named clostridium tetani. These germs thrive in dust and dirt and need no air to live. They get into the body through breaks in the skin. Any dirt in the wound may comprises tetanus germs. These germs grow fast if wound gets no air. Symptoms of tetanus usually start within several days or weeks after infection. The victim feels depressed, has headaches, fever, pain and soon has trouble opening the mouth or swallowing. After a while, all of the body muscles tighten and spasms may interfere with breathing. If not treated, the victim may die from exhaustion.


Cholera


Cholera is an infectious intestinal disorder common in Southern Asia. Cholera is caused by a comma-shaped bacterium called Vibrio cholerae. The microorganism transmitted by food or water that has been contaminated with faeces of people who have the disease. Cholera results in diarrhoea and dehydration. If untreated, the disease will lead to shock and may even in death. Doctors treat cholera with special solutions that help replace patients lost fluid. Prevention from cholera needs adequate sanitation requirements. Vaccine against disease has been developed, but it is not much effective. Traveling in the areas where cholera is spread is too risk and avoid drinking the local water.


Typhoid Fever


Typhoid is a serious bacterial illness may cause fever, sickness and in some cases, even death. It was once common in all heavily populated regions. However, as methods of good hygiene and sanitation were developed, typhoid fever occurred, less often. It is relatively rare in areas that have modern standards of sanitation. Typhoid fever is caused by the bacterium named salmonella typhi. This bacteria passes indirectly from one man to another through contaminated water or food. Victims of typhoid fever shed Salmonella Typhi in their faeces an urine. So that healthy persons, who are carriers, can spread the bacteria. Carriers shows no symptoms of fever, but they carry the bacteria in body and release it in their faeces.


Dysentery


Dysentery is a disease causing inflammation in the lining of the large intestine. The bacterial inflammation produces abdominal pain and diarrhoea. The bowel movements contains mucus and blood. Some types of dysentery will have the symptoms of fever or vomiting. Diarrhoea causes people with dysentery to lose fluids and salts necessary to their bodies. The disease can be fatal if the body becomes dehydrated.


Salmonellosis


Salmonellosis is a common type of food poisoning. It is often called salmonella because it results from infection by certain types of salmonella bacteria. People get salmonellosis from food or water contaminated with these bacteria. Poultry, milk, eggs and products made from eggs are the foods that most often carry the bacteria. There are also other types of salmonella bacteria that cause a number of other infectious diseases. For example, the salmonella typhi bacterium causes typhoid fever. Salmonellosis is usually confined to the intestines. It may spread throughout the body in chronically ill people and in people who have a deficient immune system or sickle cell disease. The bacteria produce the symptoms by releasing a poison called a toxin. The toxin stimulates the secretion of fluids in the small intestine, producing diarrhoea. Other symptoms of salmonellosis include nausea, abdominal pain and fever.


Leprosy


Leprosy, otherwise known as Hansen’s disease is a chronic infectious disease. It primarily affects the skin; the mucous membranes, especially those in the nose and the peripheral nervous system, which includes nerves that connect the spinal cord to the muscles. In advanced cases of the disease, the eyes, liver, spleen, muscles and bone marrow can also be affected. Leprosy is not usually fatal. However, patients with untreated or neglected infections may develop crippling deformities of the hands and feet. Through the years, people with leprosy have been the victims of fear and prejudice, largely because of the deformities associated with the disease. In many societies, people with leprosy have been made outcasts from the communities.