5th Group Elements in Periodic Table

5th Group Elements does not have a trivial name. The 5th group elements include vanadium, niobium, tantalum and dubnium. They are explained below.

Vanadium - What is It?

 

Symbol – V

Electron Configuration – [Ar] 3d34s2

Atomic Number –23

Atomic Weight – 50.9415

 

A chemical element with symbol V, is a silvery-white metallic element. It occurs throughout the earth's crust, but only in extremely small quantities. Such trace amounts of vanadium also have been found in meteorites. Vanadium is used chiefly by steel manufacturers, who produce it in the form of an iron alloy called ferrovanadium. Vanadium strengthens steel by improving both its hardness at high temperatures and its ability to withstand shock. It also makes steel resistant to corrosion. Manufacturers use this strong, rust-resistant alloy steel in producing axles, gears and springs for aeroplanes, cars and locomotives. High speed cutting tools also are made of alloy steel containing vanadium. Vanadium resists attack by many chemicals, but it allows neutrons to penetrate readily. These properties make the metal suitable for use in nuclear reactors. Vanadium was first discovered in 1801 by Manuel-del-Rio, a Mexican chemist.

 

Niobium - What is It?

 

Symbol – Nb

Electron Configuration – [Kr] 4d45s1

Atomic Number – 41

Atomic Weight – 92.90638

 

Niobium also called columbium, has the chemical symbol Nb. It is a soft, silver-white or grey metallic element. In nature, it occurs chiefly combined with tantalum, another rare metal. Manufacturers allow much niobium with nickel and steel to make strong structural materials that are resistant to high temperatures. Niobium is also used in the cores of certain nuclear reactors because it allows neutrons to penetrate easily and can withstand high temperature reactor coolants. At extremely low temperatures, it becomes a superconductor, so it is used in making superconducting magnets. The atomic number of niobium is 41 and its atomic weight is 92.9064. It melts at 2468 ± 10°C and boils at 4742°C. Niobium has a density of 8.57 grams per cubic cm at 20°C. Charles Hatchett, a British chemist, discovered niobium in 1801.

 

Tantalum - What is It?

 

Symbol – Ta

Electron Configuration – [Xe] 4f145d36s2

Atomic Number – 73

Atomic Weight – 180.94788

 

Tantalum is a chemical element with symbol Ta. It is a rare metal. At normal temperatures, a film of tantalum oxide forms on the surface of tantalum and protects the metal from corrosion. The electronics industry uses tantalum in the manufacture of capacitors because the tantalum oxide film serves as an efficient insulator. The metal is also widely used in building nuclear reactors and in certain aircraft and missile parts. Tantalum oxide is an important component of camera lenses because it increases the refracting properties of glass. In addition, tantalum does not react with body fluids and it is therefore ideal for such surgical applications as bone repair and internal stitching. Tantalum occurs in nature with the element niobium in the minerals columbite and tantalite. Tantalum is difficult to separate from niobium because of the chemical similarity of the two elements. Commercially tantalum is obtained as a by-product in the extraction of tin from mineral deposits in Malaysia and Nigeria. Its atomic number is 73 and its atomic weight is 180.948. Tantalum was discovered in 1802 by the Swedish chemist, Anders Gustaf Ekeberg.

 

Dubnium - What is It?


Symbol – Db

Electron Configuration – [Rn] 5f146d37s2

Atomic Number – 105

Atomic Weight – 262

 

Dubnium is a synthetic element which is highly radioactive. Dubnium-268 is its most stable isotope. It is also one of the most important chemical elements used for research. It doesn’t occur in nature and is produced artificially. It shares the most properties of other fifth group elements. Dubnium has the chemical symbol Db. It has a dominant +5 oxidation state along with other fifth group elements. The discovery of dubnium has been a matter of dispute between American and Soviet chemists. In 1968, Georgy Flerov and his team (at JINR Russia) bombarded americium with neon and prepared an isotope of element 105. After two years (In 1970), Albert Ghiorso and his team (at LBL America) bombarded californium with neon and prepared the isotope 261. The two teams gave it diverse names. Eventually, IUPAC decided a new name and called it Dubnium. It is named after the Russian town, Dubna. The atomic number of Dubnium is 105 and the atomic weight is 262. Currently Dubnium is not used for commercial purposes and is only used in Research.