Great Philosophers and their Contributions

Here are a list of great philosophers of world and their contributions as follows.

Thales (625-546 BC)


Founder of Greek philosophy, Thales was born in Miletus, Asia Minor. He was a scholar in astrology that he predicted the eclipse of the sun, occured in 585 BC. He stated that the original principle of everything is water and everything begins and ends in water. Thales is one among the Seven Wise Men of Greece.


Pythagoras (570-500 BC)


Pythagoras was a Greek philosopher and mathematician born on the island of Samos. He founded a movement known as pythagoreanism, aiming at the development of religion, politics and philosophy. It was Pythagoras who considered earth as a globe revolving with other planets around a central ball of fire.


Confucius (551-479 BC)


The Chinese philosopher confucius was born in the state of Lu. He taught the principles and precepts of the sages and great men of ancient classics. After the age of 50, he became the minister of crime of Lu. During his reign crime was almost eliminated from the state. Later confucius resigned from the ministry and spent the rest of his life travelling, teaching and writing commentaries on the classics.


Sree Buddha (568-488 BC)


Buddha was born in Kapilavastu, Nepal. He taught that suffering is an inherent part of existence and that desire is the origin of sufferings. He established many schools, to spread his teachings and change the selfish and egoistic nature of people. Throughout his life he has explained his philosophical views by directly discussing with people and he died at the age of eighty years.


Socrates (469-399 BC)


The Greek philosopher Socrates was born in Athens. Though very hard and self controlled in nature, he gained a vast social support. He believed that immoral habits are the result of ignorance and no person is willingly bad Also one who knows the right will act rightly because virtue is knowledge. His contemporaries were against his attitudes towards the state and religions and so he was sentenced to death.


Plato (428-348 BC)


One of the most creative and influential thinkers and philosophers, Plato was born in Athens, Greece He was a disciple of Socrates. The basic fact of Plato's theory was one can attain real knowledge only through philosophy. In his famous political work 'Republic' Plato says, only the person who has real knowledge is eligible to rule a country.


Aristotle (384-322 BC): 


Aristotle the Greek philosopher and scientist was born at Stagira in Macedonia. He joined Plato's Academy at the age of 17 and continued there for about 20 years. His earliest works were in dialogue form and they were concerned wish the worthlessness of this world and thoughts of the next world. The theory of Aristotle laid the foundation of modern science.


Sree Sankara (AD 788-820)


Sree Sankara was an Indian philosopher, born in Kerala. He presented the invaluable Advaita theory and according to it, this world and God is one and the same. He travelled throughout India, to spread his Siddhanta and this venture was called Digvijayam. He established four ashrams in the Four Corners of India. His Advaita Sidhanta gave a totally new line of thinking to the religious and social dictum of those days.


Francis Bacon (1561-1626)


A philosopher, lawyer and statesman Bacon was born at York House, in the Strand, London Bacon's philosophy was that people are the servants and interpreters of nature, that truth is not derived from authority and knowledge can be attained from experience. Bacon is one among the pioneers of modern scientific thought.


Immanuel Kant (1724-1804)


Born in Konigsberg, Russia, Kant was known as one of the most influential thinkers of modem times Kant's lectures and works gained him a reputation as a philosopher. The Govt. of Prussia banned his teaching and writing on religious subjects. After the death of the then king of Prussia, Kant published a summary of his religious thoughts.


Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900)


Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche was a German philosopher, philologist, poet and one of the most influential thinkers of the 19'h century. He was born in Rocken, Prussia. Nietzsche was against traditional values under certain religions and claimed that new values could be created and replaced in place of traditional values. Nietzsche's major works include The Birth of Tragedy, Thus Spoke Zarathustra, 'The Antichrist and The Will to Power.


Montesquieu (1689-1755)


Charles de Montesquieu was a French political philosopher born at Chateau La Brede near Bordeax in France. As a political theorist through his work The Sprit of Laws, he put forth an animating principle to each form of government. Another most celebrated doctrine of Montesquieu was the political influence of climate.


Rousseau (1712-1778)


Jean Jacques Rousseau is a renowned philosopher and political theorist. He was one of the most influential writer lived in the Age of Enlightenment. Rousseau was born in Geneva. Rousseau tried a lot through his thoughts and speeches for the social freedom of mankind. Rousseau became one of the popular philosophers of the 18th century through his ideals of independence and republic.


Karl Marx (1818-1883)


The founder of Marxism, Karl Marx was a revolutionary, a political philosopher and one of the most influential thinkers of the world. He was born in Trier in Germany. Marx became popular through two of his brilliant works - The Communist Manifesto and Das Kapital. Marxian thoughts were mainly of the analysis of political economy.


Gandhiji (1869-1948)


Born in Gujarat, Gandhiji was a very unique personality. He thought that a person is a part of God only. The only way to find God within a person is through the search of truth. The way towards truth is love and selfless love reflects God. By realising the value of truth, we can triumph over and terminate evil.


Sartre (1905-1980)


Jean Paul Sartre was a French philosopher, writer and political journalist. Sartre was born in Paris. Sartre was well known as a leading exponent of Existentialism, a philosophy on the freedom of the individual human being. His works include Being and Nothingness, The Flies, The words, The Troubled Sleep and The Age of Reason.