Scandium Family (3rd Group Elements)

Scandium Family consists of the chemical elements of Group 3 in periodic table. The 3rd group elements include scandium, yttrium, lutetium, and lawrencium. They are explained below.

Scandium - What is It?

Symbol – Sc

Electron Configuration – [Ar] 3d14s2

Atomic Number – 21

Atomic Weight – 44.95510

Scandium is a soft silvery-white metal. Its chemical symbol is Sc. It has an atomic number of 21 and an atomic weight of 44.95510. In 1869, Dmitri Mendeleev of Russia predicted its existence. In 1879, Lars Nilson of Sweden discovered it in the minerals gadolinite and euxenite. Scandium is named after Scandinavia. Scandium is found in tiny amounts in over 800 minerals but is costly to extract and has no significant use. Scandium melts at 1541°C and boils at 2831°C. It has a density of 2.989 grams per cubic centimetre at 20°C.


Lutetium - What is It?

Symbol – Lu

Electron Configuration – [Xe] 4f145d16s2

Atomic Number – 71

Atomic Weight – 174.9668

Lutetium is a silvery white metal, which has the property of resisting corrosion in dry air, but not in the moist air. It is one of the most important chemical element of third group of periodic table. Lutetium has the chemical symbol Lu. The atomic number of Lutetium is 71 and the atomic weight is 174.9668. The discovery of Lutetium was made by the three scientists namely Georges Urbain (french), Baron Carl Auer von Welsbach (austrian), and Charles James (american) in 1907. Lutetium is found with almost all other rare earth metals. It doesn’t exist independently as itself. Also it is not easy to separate from other elements. The principal commercial uses of lutetium are as catalysts in petroleum cracking in refineries and for the hydrogenation, polymerization and alkylation purposes.  Lutetium aluminium garnet is used in LED light bulbs.


Yttrium - What is It?

Symbol – Y

Electron Configuration – [Kr] 4d15s2

Atomic Number – 39

Atomic Weight – 88.9059

Yttrium is a chemical element with the symbol Y. It is a silvery-white metallic element. It has a number of important uses, particularly in the electronics industry. For example, the compound yttrium oxide forms the basis of the phosphors used in colour televisions to reproduce red. This compound is also used to produce two kinds of crystals called garnets. One type of garnet acts as a microwave filter in radar and the other serves as an imitation diamond. Yttrium is also used in lasers and in the manufacture of certain chemicals, glass and also ceramics. Yttrium resembles the rare-earth elements and it occurs in nearly all rare-earth minerals. The metal is obtained commercially from monazite sand. The atomic number of yttrium is 39 and its atomic weight is 88.9059. It was discovered in 1843 by the Swedish chemist Carl Gustav Mosander.


Lawrencium - What is It?

Symbol – Lr

Electron Configuration – [Rn] 5f147s27p1

Atomic Number – 103

Atomic Weight – 262

Lawrencium is an artificially created radioactive element. It was named in honour of the American physicist Ernest O. Lawrence. It has an atomic number of 103. Lawrencium was discovered in 1961 by four American scientists Albert Ghiorso, Torbiorn Sikkeland, Almon E. Larsh and Robert M. Latimer. They produced the element by bombarding californium with boron ions from a heavy-ion linear accelerator. The half-life of the isotope they obtained was eight seconds, but its mass number is not known for certain. A total of eight isotopes of lawrencium have been discovered. One of its two most stable isotopes has a mass number of 256 and a half-life of 28 seconds. The other has a mass number of 260 and a half-life of 3 minutes. Lawrencium is the last member of the actinide series of the periodic table. Its chemical symbol is Lr.