Titanium Family (4th Group Elements)

Titanium Family consists of the chemical elements of Group 4 in periodic table. The 4th group elements include titanium, zirconium, hafnium, and rutherfordium. They are explained below.

Titanium - What is It?

Symbol – Ti

Electron Configuration – [Ar] 3d24s2

Atomic Number – 22

Atomic Weight – 47.88

Titanium is a chemical element with symbol Ti. It is a light weight, silver grey metal, its atomic number is 22 and its atomic weight is 47.88. The density of titanium lies between that of aluminium and stainless steel. It melts at 1667°C and boils at 3287°C. Titanium resists sea water and sea air corrosion. It also resists the rust as well as platinum. It is superior than stainless steel. Many highly corrosive acids and alkalies do not affect titanium. It is a ductile metal that is, it can be drawn into wire. It also has a higher strength-weight ratio than steel. All these qualities make it metal of great importance. Titanium was discovered in 1790 by the English chemist William Gregor.


Zirconium - What is It?

Symbol – Zr

Electron Configuration – [Kr] 4d25s2

Atomic Number – 40

Atomic Weight – 91.224

Crystalline zirconium, atomic number 40, is a white soft, ductile and malleable metal. It was discovered in 1789 by the German chemist Martin Klaproth. It is found chiefly in zircon, often located on the beaches and lake beds. It is normally obtained as a bye-product of the processing of limenite. One of its main uses is in water cooled nuclear reactors (because of high corrosion resistance) and also in chemical processing equipment. Chemical symbol is Zr. Its atomic weight is 91.224.


Hafnium - What is It?

Symbol – Hf

Electron Configuration – [Xe] 4f145d26s2

Atomic Number – 72

Atomic Weight – 178.49

Hafnium, a chemical element, is a silver-coloured metal. It absorbs neutrons better than most metals and is resistant to corrosion. For these reasons, rods made of hafnium are used to control the rate of reactions in nuclear reactors of nuclear submarines. When the reaction rate is too high, the rods are pushed into the reactor to absorb some of the neutrons. When the rate is low, the rods are withdrawn. Hafnium is also used in some gas-filled and incandescent lamps. Its atomic number is 72 and its atomic weight is 178.49. It was discovered in 1923 by the Dutch physicist Dirk Coster and the Hungarian chemist George von Hevesy. The highest concentrations of hafnium occur in the minerals zircon and baddeleyite. Hafnium is always found in combination with the more common element zirconium, which it resembles in its chemical and physical properties. Hafnium is a common by-product of the production of this element. Chemical symbol is Hf.


Rutherfordium - What is It?

Symbol – Rf

Electron Configuration – [Rn] 5f146d27s2

Atomic Number – 104

Atomic Weight – 261

Rutherfordium, atomic number 104, was probably first identified in 1969 by A. Ghiorso, M. Nurmia, J. Harris, K. Eskola and P. Eskola (all U.S) by bombarding californium with carbon ions. A claim of previous discovery was made by a Soviet team led by G.N. Flerov, stating they obtained the element in 1964 by bombarding plutonium with neon ions. They proposed the name Kurchatovium in honour of the Soviet scientist Igor Kurchatov, whereas the American name was to honour Lord Rutherford. No known use has been reported to date for the element. Chemical symbol is Rf.